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Sensory System

Med Surg

3 extraocular structures include eyelids, lashes, tears
3 intraocular layers include sclera, uvea, retina
aqueous humor def liquid that nourishes eye structure - lens and cornea
vitreous humor def clear jelly like that holds retina in place
refractive media def all structures working together - receive and bend light rays, focus on retina, then reflect to form image then reverse & turn upside down to carry to optic nerve to optic casem to form L & R optic tract and trasmit to brain
refraction def when light passes through the cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, lens, and vitreous humor
accomodation def process by which the lens changes shape to focus
near point def closest point a person can clearly focus on an object
ophthalmologist def DR who specializes in eye disorders (MD)
optometrist def test vision, eye exam, prescribe lens, contact lenses, some treat limited eye disorders & prescribe meds (OD)
optician def specialist who make eyeglasses/contact lenses based on ophthalmologist & optometrists recommendation
what age should a patient have a thorough visual screening? 40
ptosis def drooping of lid
proptosis def extended/protruded upper eye lid that delays closing or remains partially open
nystagmus def uncontrolled oscillating movement of eyeball
how far do you have your pt stand from the eye chart when conducting assessing visual acuity? 20 ft
what is normal vision, visually impaired and legally blind? normal - 20/20, V.I. - 20/70, legally blind - 20/200
what do the Jaeger chart and Rosenbaum pocket vision screening tool measure and how are they used? 14 inches away and used to evaluate near vision
what are the Ishihara polychromatic plates used for? color vision
when performing the corneal light reflext test, what is considered a normal result? reflection of light should be the same for each eye. It assesses alignment of the eye
Tonometry def measures IOP
Amsler grid is used to assess pts with ______ problems mascular
what is a slit lamp exam? a binocular microscope that magnifies the surface of the eye and is helpful to disorders including corneal abrasions, irisitis, conjunctivitis and cataracts
what is Rentinal angiography used for? detects vascular changes and blood flow through retinal vessels
what is a whisper test? tests used to assess pts gross auditory acuity
what do the tuning forks test for? screen for hearing loss
what are decibels? unit of measuring intensity of sound
Emmetropia def normal vision
Myopia def nearsightness
Hyperopia def farsightness
presbyopia def associated w/ aging r/t difficulty w/near vision
astygmatism def visual distortion caused by an irregularly shaped cornea
BCVA best corrected visual cornea
endophthalmitis def disorder which all 3 layers of eye and vitreous are inflammed
diplopia def double vision
conjunctivitis def inflammation of conjunctivia - pink eye can lead to blindness
uveitis def inflammation of uvea which is made up of iris, ciliary body and choroids - no known cause. give mydriatics, atropine, analgesics, antibiotics. can lead to glaucoma, cataracts, and retinal detachment
keratitis def inflammation of cornea d/t trauma and infectous agents - stop wearing contacts temporarily
blepharitis def inflammation of eye lids
horodoleum def inflammation/infection of Zeis/moll glands - oil glands at edges of eye lids d/t staph infection
chalazion def cyst of 1 or more meibomian glands - inner surface of eyelid d/t blockage and gland enlarges
macular degeneration def breakdown/damage to the maeula pt on the retina where light rays converge for most acute visual perception
glaucoma def production and drainage of aqueous fluid
open angle def aka chronic/simple and most common - onset slow and pt may not experience noticeable symptoms for many years
angle def closure less common, recognize to prevent blindness
cataracts def aging process or congenitally acquired - diabetes and halo around light - early sx
phacoemulsification ultrasound breaks the lens into minute particles removed by aspiration
retinal detachment def sensory layer becomes separated from pigmental layer of retina
enulcleation def surgical removal of an eye
presbycusis def hearing impairment associated w/old age
tinnitus def ringing in ears - one or both
sensorineural def hearing loss is usually irreversible
cerumen impaction def accumulated earwax that obstructs the external acoustic meatus
otalgia def fullness/pain in ears - diminished hearing
otitis media def inflammation of tissue in outer ear
myringotomy/tympanotomy def small opening cut in tympanic membrance to decrease likelihood of rupture
otoscelerosis def result of bony overgrowth of the stapes and common cause of hearing loss among adults
menieres disease def fluctuation in production/reabsorption of fluid in the inner ear
ototoxicity def detrimental effect of certain meds on the 8th cranial nerve or hearing structures
acoustic neuroma def aka vestibular schwannoma - hearing loss and compression of cochlear nerve/interference w/BS to nerve and cochlear
Created by: breinard