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Science B3 Topic 3

GCSE edexcel further additional biology: biotechnology

What is biotechnology? the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services
What is a biomolecule? a biomolecule is a substance made by a living organism
What is a fermenter? A fermenter is vessel used to cultivate microorganisms for the production of biomolecules on a large scale
Why are microorganisms provided with suitable conditions in fermenter? To encourage growth at a faster rate and the production of biomolecules
What are suitable conditions in a fermenter? optimum pH for the enzymes, optimum temperature for the enzymes - work fast but not denatured, oxygen added to allow aerobic respiration, nutrients are added (sources of carbohydrate and nitrogen)
What is agitation? Agitation is mixing the oxygen and nutrients into all of the liquid in the fermenter - produced by a stirrer
How is penecillin produced? This antibiotic is produced by the culturing of the fungus Penicillium
What are the advantages of using microorganisms for food production? •population grows rapidly •easy to handle + manipulate; can be grown in fermenters rather than taking up space outside •production independent of climate so can be grown anywhere •waste materials from other industrial processes can be food source
What is bacteria used in the production of and why? Bacteria are used in the production of yoghurt as they live on the sugars in milk and convert lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid through anaerobic respiration
Why is mycoprotein? Mycoprotein is a food made from the fungus Fusarium, sold as Quorn
What is fusarium made up of? Tiny fibres called hyphae
Where is mycroprotein produced? In a fermenter
How is mycoprotein produced? Ammonia, air, glucose syrup and minerals are added to fermenter for growth and respiration. Fermenter doesn’t have a stirrer as it would get tangled in the hyphae +break them. Hyphae are collected, heat-treated, dried + pressed
What are the advantages of using mycoprotein as a food source? *contains no saturated fat- risk factor in heart disease *high fibre content- good for digestion + slows rate of glucose absorbtion which stops insulin being secreted suddenly in large volumes; glucose + insulin surges are risk factors for type2 diabetes
What is an enzyme? An enzyme is a protein produced by living organisms that acts as a catalyst to speed up the rate of a reaction
What does immobilised enzymes mean? they are trapped in an inert material
What are enzymes used in the production of? * soft-centred sweets * cheese * washing powders
How are enzymes used for cheese production? Chymosin is an enzyme produced by genetically modified yeast (used to be taken from calves’ stomachs). It is added to milk and affects the protein, causing the milk to separate into curds and liquid whey. The curds are pressed to produce vegetarian cheese
How are enzymes used in the manufacture of sweets? Invertase is an enzyme produced by cultivating a yeast called Saccharomyces crevisae. Invertase converts sucrose into glucose and fructose, which make sweets have a soft cenre. The mixture of glucose + fructose is sweeter than sucrose so less is needed
How are enzymes used in the manufacture of washing powders? Enzymes are added to washing powders to break down stains and make it easier for detergents to remove them: * Proteases break down proteins such as haemoglobin in blood stains * Lipases break down fats, such as grease
What is recombinant DNA technology + example? Recombinant DNA technology is genetic modification by adding new DNA to an organism’s genes e.g. bacteria that produce insulin
How are insulin-producing bacteria made? 1.Restriction enzymes cut DNA from human cell into pieces- they make staggered cuts along double-stranded DNA, leaving sticky ends at both ends 2.Restriction enzymes cut open plasmid from bacteria cell, leaving sticky ends with matching unpaired bases
CONTINUATION 3.Pieces of DNA containing the insulin gene are added to the plasmids and the bases in the sticky ends pair up 4.An enzyme called DNA ligase is added which links the DNA back up into a circle 5.Recombinant plasmids are inserted into bacterial
What is global food security? the ability to produce enough food to feed everyone in the world
What is the impact of population growth on global food security? Population growth means that there are food shortages in some areas, as the same amount of food is being shared among a greater population
How is conventional breeding used to increase food production? 1.Two varieties of plant with desirable characteristics are cross-bred 2.Seeds are sown + grow into adult plants 3.Individual plants with most desirable characteristics are bred together Produces plants with properties eg. pest-resistant, high-yeild
What is integrated pest management schemes? When several different pest control strategies are used at the same time to reduce the number of crops lost to pests
What are some examples of pest management schemes? *Predators of pests introduced to environment *Pesticides *Conventional breeding: pest-resistant plants *Traps for pests eg. plant chemicals in traps + pests die in soap solution *Crop rotation prevents build-up of soil pests for individual crops
How can one increase food production for humans? plants can be genetically modified * Pest-resistant - less crops are lost to pests * High-yielding
What are biofuels? fuels made from living organisms or organisms that have recently died e.g. sugar cane, oil palms
What are the advantages of using biofuels? * They are renewable- it doesn’t take long to produce them and plants can be grown every year * They are carbon neutral- the carbon dioxide that they release in combustion equates to the carbon dioxide they absorbed when photosynthesising
What are the disadvantages of using biofuels? * They release less energy than fossil fuels * They take up lots of land for growing- this reduces the availability of land that could be used for growing food
What is a transgenic organism? organism that contains genes transferred from another species
What is a vector + example? something used to transfer genes from the cells of one organism to the other- e.g. Agrobacterium tumefaciens
How does agrobacterium tumefaciens work as a vector? 1.Required gene cut from DNA of an organism + is inserted into plasmid of an agrobacterium tumefaciens- plasmid is replaced in bacterium 2.plasmid is inserted into the plant’s DNA - leaf discs are 'infected' 3.they grow into new plants with new gene
Which bacteria has insect resistance? Bacillus thuringiensis - produces the Bt toxin when eaten by insects, which is poisonous
How has the Bt gene been used? the gene for the Bt toxin has been transferred to crops using agrobacterium to create insect resistance - ie the production of GM crops
What are some advantages of introducing Bt gene to crops? * Less insecticide has to be sprayed on the crop, reducing damage to the environment * Produces higher yields as less is lost to pests
What are some disadvantages of introducing Bt gene to crops? * toxin could kill other, harmless insects eg bees, reducing biodiversity + pollination * cross-pollination:Bt gene could spread to wild plant species * Some insect populations have evolved resistance to Bt toxin so can still live + breed on Bt plants
What is genetic modification? Genetic modification is taking a gene for a particular characteristic from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism so that it shows the characteristic
What are flavanoids? coloured substances found in plant flowers and leaves
What are GM tomatoes? Snapdragon genes that produce flavonoids were introduced to tomatoes to produce purple GM tomatoes
What is an advantage of GM purple tomatoes? help mice with cancer to live longer, so this may apply to humans as well
What are the advantages of GM crops? Could help treat disease e.g. purple GM tomatoes
What are the disadvantages of GM crops? Too expensive for people in developing countries to buy or grow
Created by: 11043