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Quarter 3 Final Rvw

TermDefinition
DNA A double stranded nucleic acid that carries the genetic code and is always found in the nucleus.
Gene A unit of heredity. A portion of a gene that codes for a trait.
Protein A large molecule, chain of amino acids, essential to many functions in the body and responsible for expression of traits.
Transcription The process where a copy of mRNA is made from one gene in DNA. Occurs in the nucleus.
Translation The process of making a protein, where tRNA matches amino acids to the codons in mRNA. Occurs in the ribosome.
Monomer Single unit - a small single molecule that makes a biomolecule
Polymer Multi-piece unit - a large molecule made up of many smaller parts
Nucleic Acids A biomolecule made up of nucleotides. Examples are DNA and RNA.
Nucleotides A monomer made up of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base. Build together to make DNA and RNA.
mRNA A type of RNA that creates a copy of DNA inside the nucleus, then carries this code out to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
Amino Acid A monomer that builds to make proteins. Each codon in mRNA codes for one of these.
Mutation A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene, which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein coded by the gene
Adaptation A characteristic or trait that helps an organism survive in its specific environment.
Natural Selection The process by which individuals in a population with beneficial traits survive and reproduce, passing down these beneficial traits to the future generation.
Evolution The gradual change in a species over time. This change occurs in populations, not in individuals.
Common Ancestor The most recent species from which two different species evolved.
Fossil Record This term refers to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, helping scientists analyze the change over time in a species
Vestigial Structures Organs or structures that no longer have a function in a species. Examples: hind leg bones in whales, appendix in humans.
Homologous Structures Structures with different functions, but similar structures, due to the presence of a common ancestor. Example: The flipper of a whale and the leg of a dog.
Analogous Structures Structures with similar functions, but different structures. Occurs due to convergent evolution when organisms are not closely related.
Embryology The study and comparison of embryo development that can provide clues to the evolution of present day organisms.
Heritable Traits Traits that can be inherited, or passed down from generation to generation in DNA
Genetic Variation Differences in DNA that exist within the gene pool of a population. Caused by mutations and genetic recombination.
Directional Selection Occurs when one extreme phenotype is selected for
Stabilizing Selection Occurs when the average phenotype is selected for, and the extreme phenotypes are selected against
Disruptive Selection Occurs when both extreme phenotypes are selected for, and the average phenotype is selected against
Genetic Drift The random change in the frequency of an allele in a population due to chance or random sampling
Gene Flow The movement of alleles from one population to another
Gene Pool All of the alleles in a population
Sexual Selection Organisms are selective in their choice of mates, resulting in a particular set of traits being selected for and passed on to future generations. Example: Colorful plumage on male peacocks.
Bottleneck Effect Genetic drift that occurs after an event greatly reduces the size of a population. Decreases genetic variation.
Genetic Recombination The change in genetic sequences during sexual reproduction that leads to an increase in genetic variation between organisms
Sickle Cell Anemia A homozygous, recessive genetic disease that causes red blood cells to be flattened and can be fatal
Convergent Evolution Different species become more similar as they adapt to the same environment. This can lead to analogous structures, such as the flipper on a whale and fins on a fish.
Divergent Evolution Related species change to adapt to different environments, become more and more different from each other, and can eventually undergo speciation.
Speciation Over time, isolated populations become very different, and one species can change enough to become two different species.
Extinction Occurs when all individuals in a species die and there are no longer any surviving individuals of a species. Evidence of these species can be found in the fossil record.
Reproductive Isolation Occurs when two individuals are no longer able to reproduce with one another.
Created by: MsClaytonRUHS