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music 110

What is Jazz? The feel of swing
Rhythm Section •Drum set, bass, keyboard •Guitar is sometimes added
Syncopation •The type of rhythm that is often used in jazz, which helps to create the swing feel
Walking bass •The bass provides this driving rhythm under the performers, often during a solo •This helps the musicians to keep time
Riffs Short, syncopated patterns usually written for specific groups of instruments
Comping •Thisis when the pianist plays syncopated chords at irregular time intervals while a solo is taking place
Feel of swing Rhythm section, syncopation, walking bass, riffs and comping
Jazz combos •A small group, ranging from 2-9 players •A common size is 3-5 players
Mutes •Devices placed on/in an instrument to alter its tone •The result is usually a softer, more subtle timbre
Miles Davis Blue in Green-- jazz example of mutes
Big bands •Rhythm section, which is basic to both the small combos as well as the big bands •Brass section (3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones) •Saxophone section (2 altos saxophones, 2 tenor saxophones, and 1 baritone saxophone
Harry Connick, Jr., “Someone’s There” example of big band
Jazz instruments jazz combos, mutes and big bands
Solos •Improvisation in jazz, particularly during solos, is one of the most important fundamental characteristics of jazz
Scat singing •Improvised jazz singing using a variety of vocal sounds rather than lyrics •The style imitates what an instrumentalist might do during a solo
Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five “Hotter than That”- example of scat singingJa
Jazz improvisation solos and scat singing
New Orleans (Jazz style) • also known as “traditional jazz” •Storyville was the central part of the this
New Orleans (Jazz style) •In 1917, this part of New Orleans was shut down, and so many of the musicians moved to other parts of the country, including Chicago and New York
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) •One of the most successful and famous musicians to come out of New Orleans •Played cornet and sang •Responsible for inventing scat singing
Chicago Jazz (Jazz style) •New Orleans jazz re-emerged in Chicago in the 1920s because of the transplanted musicians •At this point, the style of jazz became this type of Jazz or Dixieland Jazz
Swing and Big Band (Jazz style) •Swing is considered to be the only style of jazz that has truly been “popular” •As Americans rebounded from the Depression, they wanted to dance and to entertained
Benny Goodman (1909-1986 •The “King of Swing” •Famous arranger, big band leader, and clarinetist •Worked to make jazz “respectable,” and also worked to racially integrate jazz groups and audiences
Duke Ellington (1899-1974) •One of the most influential big band leaders in jazz history •Ellington aimed for sophistication in his arrangements and looked for the very best musicians his Orchestra, “Mood Indigo (an example)
Bebop (Jazz style) Three major economic and musical factors created bebop:1)Jazz musicians wanted to create new interpretations of melodies and styles, without having to fit into the three-minutes songs
Bebop (Jazz style) Three major economic and musical factors created bebop:2)Late-night jam sessions provided a venue for experimentation and individual creativity
Bebop (Jazz style) Three major economic and musical factors created bebop:3)World War II greatly impacted the lives of musicians, which eventually led to a decline in the popularity of big band music. This allowed more room for bebop music
Bebop (Jazz style) This type of music can be traced to the 1930s, but it wasn’t until the 1940s that the style was solidified.
Bebop (Jazz style) is usually combo jazz, is very complex, and is played incredibly fast. While many songs played were considered standards, it is difficult to hear the main melody due to the complex nature of the music.
Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993 •Famous jazz trumpet player •Responsible for developing Bebop in New York
Charlie Parker •The name associated with Bebop •Played saxophone and had incredible improvisation skills, which truly led to the clarification of this style
Charlie Parker/Dizzy Gillespie Bloomdido”-- example of Bebop
Cool Jazz (Jazz style) •began in the 1930s •Musicians attempted to create a “softer” style of jazz, while retaining the sophisticated elements of Bebop
Miles Davis •A Bebop trumpet player who solidified the style of Cool Jazz with his album, The Birth of the Cool in 1949 (Example- Summertime)
Hard Bop (Jazz style) •The second generation of bebop artists
John Coltrane (1926-1967) •Considered the giant of the Hard Bop style •One of the most famous saxophone players of the jazz genre
Jazz styles New Orleans, Chicago,Bebop, Swing and Big Band,Cool Jazz, Hard Bop
Created by: droe