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Science Pass Review

These flash cards are based on the science content for 5th grade

cell membrane • The soft, flexible outside covering of a cell that controls what comes in and out of a cell.
cytoplasm • The gel-like fluid that fills most of a cell. The other organelles are found in the cytoplasm.
nucleus • A small structure that controls everything the cell does.
vacuole • Are storage spaces in the cell. • They can hold water and other nutrients that the cell needs. • They can also store wastes until the cell can get rid of it.
biotic factors The living parts of the ecosystem that include populations and communities of organisms.
abiotic factors • The nonliving parts of the ecosystem that include the temperature, water, soil, air, and sunlight.
population l members of one kind of organism that live in a particular area. • Some examples may be all of the white-tailed deer in a forest, all rainbow trout in a stream, or all of the bald cypress trees in the swamp.
microorganisms living things that can be a single-celled or multi-celled organism that is too small to be seen without at least a 10x magnifier.
Communities • A group of different populations of organisms. Some examples are all of the squirrels, acorn trees, and grass in a park; all of the microorganisms in a pond; or all of the cacti, rattlesnakes, and scorpions in the dese
terrestrial Land-based ecosystems include forests and grasslands
grasslands have fertile soil and are covered with tall grasses. get a medium amount of rain, but less than forests. Temperatures vary. Some examples of animals that live here are prairie dogs, bison, and grasshoppers.
aquatic • Water-based ecosystems may be fresh water (lakes and ponds) or saltwater (oceans, estuaries and saltwater marshes).
lakes and ponds bodies of freshwater that are surrounded by land. Plants and algae usually grow along the edges where the water is shallow. Some examples of animals may be different types of fish, amphibians, ducks, turtles, or beavers.
oceans large bodies of saltwater divided by continents.
estuaries where the freshwater rivers meet the oceans. The amount of salt (salinity)changes as the tides come in and out. Has salt marshes with grasses and marsh plants. animals that live here may be crabs, shrimp, birds such as blue heron and egrets, and muskrats.
producers Organisms that make their own food.• Plants are able to use light energy from the Sun to produce food (sugar) from carbon dioxide in the air and water.
consumers Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals.
herbivores Animals that eat only plants
carnivores Animals that eat only other animals
omnivores Animals that eat both plants and animals
decomposers • Consumers (including microorganisms, termites, worms, and fungi) that get the energy they need by breaking down dead or decaying matter. They speed up the decaying process that releases nutrients back into the food chain for use by plants.
food chain a series of plants and animals in which each organism is a source of food (energy) for the next in the series.
food web Interconnected food chains
predators animals that hunt and kill other animals for food.
prey animals that are hunted and killed as food for other animals
parasite an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on a living host organism usually causing harm to the host without immediately killing it. Fleas and ticks are examples.
hosts organisms or cells that serve as a home or a source of food for a parasite
balance of nature • The relationship between numbers of organisms and the resources available in an ecosystem
limiting factor • A condition or resource that keeps a population at a certain size
constructive • Processes that create landforms (deposition, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods)
destructive • Processes that destroy landforms (weathering, erosion, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods)
weathering processes that break down rocks at or near the surface of the earth.
erosion the movement of sediments and soil by wind, water, ice, and gravity.
deposition the dropping, or depositing, of sediments by water, wind, or ice.
landslides mass movements of land due to gravity
volcanic eruptions mountains with openings in Earth’s crust through which magma, gases, and ash reach Earth’s surface.
earthquakes vibrations on Earth’s surface caused by sudden movement in Earth, often along a fault, a break in Earth’s surface.
floods a large amount of water covers land that is usually dry
continental shelf • The part of the continent located under the water
continental slope The steep slope where the continental shelf drops to the bottom of the ocean floor. Ocean depth increases greatly here.
mid-ocean ridge On the bottom of the ocean, there is a central ridge, or mountain range, that divides the ocean floor into two parts.
seamounts Underwater volcanic mountains not located on the mid-ocean ridge
rift zone • Underwater volcanic activity that adds mountains to either side of the mid-ocean ridge
trenches the deepest part of the ocean basin and are deeper than any valley found on land.
ocean basin Located on either side of the mid-ocean ridge. It is made up of hills and flat plains
abyssal plain The flat area of the ocean basin
ocean shore zone area where the ocean meets the land
shoreline, or coast area where the land meets the ocean.
longshore currents along the shoreline can move sand from one location to another.
barrier islands Islands with sandy beaches that protect the mainland.
estuaries The area where a river meets the ocean. They have a mixture of fresh and salt water.
inlets water-filled spaces between the barrier islands. Tides can change the amount water in these spaces.
waves The repeated movement of water
crest The highest part of the wave
trough The lowest part of the wave.
breaker This is formed when the top of the wave curls over
tsunamis giant sea waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides.
currents Flowing streams of water that move continually through the ocean in a specific direction
tides regular rise and fall of waters in oceans and seas. They happen twice a day and are caused by the gravitational of the moon on the earth
High tides When the water level is at its highest point
Low tides When the water level is at its lowest point
conservation Human activities that help to keep the natural resources of Earth available and clear of pollution through recycling, reusing and reducing
pollution Any human activity that harms the natural environment
Created by: mrsjbrown