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BMMS 6Science Ch 2

BMMS Science Ch 2 - Weathering and Soil

QuestionAnswer
Mineral inorganic, naturally occurring, forming on or below Earth’s surface, crystal shape, definite chemical composition.
Crystal a solid made up of particles that line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again.
Rock cycle a series of processes on and beneath Earth’s surface that slowly change rocks from one kind to another.
Igneous rock material that cools and hardens at or beneath the surface
Sedimentary rock sediment is deposited and then squeezed and glued together
Sediment small, solid pieces, or material, that come from rocks or living things
Metamorphic rock under great heat and pressure, the minerals in rocks are changed into other minerals
Nonrenewable resource a resource that is not replaced in a useful time frame.
Ore rock that contains a metal or other useful minerals that can be mined and sold
Smelting ore is mixed with other substances and then melted to separate the useful metal from other elements
Weathering process that breaks down rock and other substances on earth’s surface
Erosion transportation of sediment by wind, water, ice or gravity
Uniformitarianism principle that states that the same processes that operate today operated in the past
Mechanical weathering process by which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
Abrasion grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind or gravity
Ice wedging ice expands creating a wedge that widens and deepens cracks in rock
Chemical weathering process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
Oxidation iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water; rust
Permeable a material is full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it
Soil loose, weathered material on earth’s surface
Bedrock solid layer of rock beneath the soil
Humus dark colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay
Fertility measure of how well the soil supports plant growth
Loam soil that is made up of nearly equal parts of clay, sand and silt
Soil horizon a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
Topsoil crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay and other minerals
Subsoil usually consists of clay and other particles washed down from the A horizon, but little humus
Acidic reacts strongly with some metals and turns blue litmus paper red
Basic feels slippery and changes red litmus paper blue
Litter loose layer of leaves and plant remains
Decomposer organisms that break down the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals
Sod thick mass of tough roots at the surface of the soil
Natural resource anything in the environment that humans use
Soil conservation management of soil to prevent its destruction
Contour plowing plowing fields along the curves of a slope
Conservation plowing disturb the soil and its plant cover as little as possible
Crop rotation planting different crops in a field each year
Created by: mrpowers