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Assessment Quiz 4

Female assessment/Pregnancy/Child assessment/Head to toe

Skene's glands Located on either side of the urethral meatus, produce mucus that is secreted through ducts
Bartholin's glands Produce a clear lubricating mucus during intercourse
The ovaries produce Estrogen and progesterone
The left testicle hangs lower than the right, because: the left spermatic cord is longer
The epididymis is a crescent shaped structure that is curved over the top of the testicle.
The walnut shaped prostate gland lies below and behind the urinary bladder, surrounding the urethra.
The prostate gland secretes thin, white, milky, alkaline ejaculation fluid that helps sperm viability.
Cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia are more common in: preterm boys
Testicles enlarge between: 9 and 13 years
The nipple and areola form between 12 and 16 weeks
Pubic hair in girls develops between ages: 8 to 13.5 years
Menarche occurs: usually 2 years after the appearance of breast buds
Axillary hair in girls is usually: 2 years after the onset of pubic hair
Menarche occurs in breast development Stage: 3 or 4 usually around 12
Breast development is usually completed by: age 16
Tanner stage 1-breast pre-adolescent breast with only a small elevated nipple with no underlying breast tissue.
Tanner stage 2-breast breast bud stage in which the breast and nipple elevate as a small mound, and the areola widens.
Tanner stage 3-breast there is further enlargement of the breast and areola, and the areola becomes darker.
Tanner stage 4-breast the areola and nipple form a secondary mound over the breast tissue.
Tanner stage 5-breast is the mature breast
Tanner stage 1-boys pre-adolescent, no pubic hair; penis and testes are same size and proportion as in childhood.
Tanner stage 2-boys sparse pubic hair; slight enlargement of penis and testes.
Tanner stage 3-boys darker, coarser pubic hair; further enlargement of penis and testes.
Tanner stage 4-boys coarse and curly pubic hair covering more area; further enlargement of penis and testes.
Tanner stage 5-boys hair spread to medial surface of the thighs and adult in quality and quantity; penis and testes reach adult size and proportion.
In boys, puberty typically begins between: ages 9.3 and 13.5 years
Maturation from preadolescent boy to adult man usually lasts 2-5 years
Trisomy 13 and 18 are associated with hydronephrosis
Girls with Turner syndrome have abnormally formed ovaries
Acanthosis nigricas in girls: may indicate PCOS
Alopecia may indicate hypothyroidism
Pediatric family history for girls ask: maternal age at menarche, family hx. of dysmenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, or endometriosis, thyroid, Wilm's tumor, female cancer, PCOS
Pediatric family history for boys ask: Wilm's tumor,cryptochidism, hypospadias, epispadias, testicular malignancy
Birth through school age-epidermis more loosely bound to the dermis: easy blistering, susceptible to superficial bacterial infections, and more likely to have associated systemic symptoms with some skin infections
Birth to preschool age-eccrine glands palmar sweating occurs; helps to assess pain in neonate
adolescents-apocrine glands causes body odor
Birth until adolescence-melanin affects assessment of skin color as child ages
Posterior fontanel should be closed by 2 months
Anterior fontanel should be closed by 12 to 18 months
Postnatal brain growth is completed by age 1
Brain reaches 75% of adult size by age 3
Brain reaches 90% of adult size by age 6
Brain reaches adult size by age 12
Infants can distinguish color by age 8 months
Children are far-sighted until about age 6-7 years
Short-wide Eustachian tube, lying in horizontal plane (birth until 2) cannot easily drain fluid from middle ear and prone to middle ear infections
Pinna should be pulled down and back to perform otoscopic examination birth to age 3
Pinna should be pulled up and back for otoscopic examination age 3 years and older
Deciduous teeth should erupt between ages 6 to 24 months
Delay in deciduous teeth may indicate hypothyroidism or poor nutrition
Chest circumference should exceed head circumference at age 2 years
Infants have only: of the total # of alveoli found in the adult lung 10%
Birth to 10 years less lung volume, therefore: higher respiratory rate
Beginning age 2 years: breath sounds loud and high in pitch, easily heard through thin chest wall, inhaled foreign bodoes easily aspirated into: right bronchus, right is significantly shorter, wider, and more vertical than the left
Neonates corresponding ages birth to 28 days
Infants corresponding ages 1 month to 1 year
Toddlers corresponding ages 1 to 3 years
Preschoolers corresponding ages 3 to 6 years
School aged children corresponding ages 6 to 12 years
Adolescents corresponding ages 12 to 21 years
Pediatric GI system prolonged gastric emptying affects absorption of nutrients and medications
Pediatric liver occupies a larger part of abdominal cavity and is easily felt until school aged
Pediatric lymph system at ages 10-12 lymph tissue reaches a maximum size of twice the normal adult size
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen
Pediatric kidneys top of right kidney ma be palpated, infant to preschoolers
Newborn until age 2 kidneys cannot concentrate and dilute urine effectively
Fluid balance birth to age 2 increased potential for insensible water los due to large body surface area
Pediatric thermoregulation sweating and vasodilation mechanisms not fully developed making birth to 2 more prone to febrile seizures
Created by: 1096147201