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Erhart ANTH 2414

Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Evolution changes in populations over time
Biocultural Approach Interaction between culture & biologyex: sex drive- how we deal withsocial structure- infantspopulation growth- birth control
Holistic uses info from all subfeilds to draw conclusions & attempt to answer questions
Adaptation change in response to enviromental changes.*adaptations can be enviromentally specific
Adaptation Types: 1. Cultural ex: technology2. Biological-physiological: sweating-genetic: skin color
subfeilds of anthroplogy (4) 1.Cultural-study of human culture2.Linguistic- study of language3.Archaeology- study past cultures4. Physical/Biological- study of humans & closest relatives
Ethenography study of a specific culture
Ethnology comparative study of many cultures
Sociolingustics why do people speak differently?
areas of study within physical anthroplogy 1.Human variation2.Growth & Development3.Osteology- study of human skeleton4.Primatology- study of non-human primates5.Paleoanthropology- study fossils
Fact verifiable observale truth
Theory a set of supported hypothoses
Hypothosis a testable explaination for the observed facts
Scientific Method Observe a fact -> construct a hypothosis -> test hypothosis
Natural Selection Those traits deemed best "fit" over time become over-represented1.Physical & behavioral variation2.Excessive fecundity (competition)3.Advantageous traits4.Population will change over time
Fixity of Species Scale of perfection, supreme being created earth in curent form
Chain of Being/ Scalae Natura all forms of life can be ranked in order from the most important to the least important.
Linnaeus "father of taxonomy"-system of classification by grouping together oraganisims with similar anatomical structures (systema naturae)*caused scientific revolution*beleived in fixity of nature
Cuvier 1.Catastrophism2.did not beleive species change but some catastrophe killed old life forms3.palenotologist
Erasmus Darwin 1.all life derived from a single ancestor2.orgnisims change to fit the enviroment
Lamarck 1.1st to try to explain evolution2.realized species can change
Lyell 1.Prinicples of Geology2.Uniformitarianism- earth must be millions of years old, & is constantly changing over slow, gradual time.
Charles Darwin 1.Orogins of Species, impacted by Lyell.2.evolution via natural selection3.reproductive success->if heritable->natural selection->evolution
Malthus Excessive Fecundity-reproduce faster then food source
Wallace corrospondent to Darwin who came up with the same theory.
Reproductive Sucess (Fitness) measure of the number of suriving offspring an organism has.
Seletive Pressures enviromental changes causing a population to evolve
Observed Examples of Evolution 1. industrialazation & moth color2. housefly resistance to DDT.
Directional Selection "fitness" shifts in one direction or another.
Stabalizing Selection narrower curve, natural selectionis working against the extremes
Diversifying Selection working against the average, two "humps"
Founder Effect "population Bottlenecking" surviving populations genes get passed
Mutation having more/less of the diploid/haploid #, random alteration of genes, occurs in gametes
Natural Slection works off variation
Hardy-Wineburg equilibrium If one assumption is broken it shows where to look1.mating is random2.no mutation3.no natural selection4.no migration5.large populations
Microevolution changes from on generation to the next
Macroevolution can change radically over long period of time
gene flow exchange of genes between populations
genetic drift population split
misconceptions about evolution bigger not necessarily better
preformation every sperm had a tiny human to be implanted in womb to grow
blending offspring is an average of the parents
Pangenesis Darwin, gemmules floating in your body effected by you then passes on to sex cells
Mendel preist, studied inheratence w/ a pea plant
Parental generation (P1) cross pollinate TRUE BREEDING
First filial generation (F1) hybrids, observed trait is dominant
Second filial generation (F2) always 3:1, recessive phenyotype shows up
Phenotype external: physical trait that we can see
genotype internal: genetic makeup for a particular trait, genotype effects pheynotype & vice versa
Priniple of Segregation when a sex cell is formed whatever allels you have only one is passed.
principles of independent assortment each trait is inherated independently, can have recessive & dominant
Homozygous dominant (EE) 2 dominant allels
heterozygous (Ee) 1 dominant, 1 recessive
homozygous recessive (ee) 2 recessive allels
dominant traits anchondroplasia, btachydatyly, neurofibromatosis, marfan syndrome
recessive traits cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs disease, PKU, albinism
Menedel Patterns of inheratence pedigree-family trees
Autosomal traits dominant- passed evenly between a man & a women (heterozygotes)recessive- homozygous recessive
Sex-Linked traits affects only X chromosone
polygenic inheretance many genes effect just one
Pleiotropy one genes effects multiple phenotypes
Founder Effect "population Bottlenecking" surviving populations genes get passed
Mutation having more/less of the diploid/haploid #, random alteration of genes, occurs in gametes
Natural Slection works off variation
Hardy-Wineburg equilibrium If one assumption is broken it shows where to look1.mating is random2.no mutation3.no natural selection4.no migration5.large populations
Microevolution changes from on generation to the next
Macroevolution can change radically over long period of time
gene flow exchange of genes between populations
genetic drift population split
misconceptions about evolution bigger not necessarily better
preformation every sperm had a tiny human to be implanted in womb to grow
blending offspring is an average of the parents
Pangenesis Darwin, gemmules floating in your body effected by you then passes on to sex cells
Mendel preist, studied inheratence w/ a pea plant
Parental generation (P1) cross pollinate TRUE BREEDING
First filial generation (F1) hybrids, observed trait is dominant
Second filial generation (F2) always 3:1, recessive phenyotype shows up
Phenotype external: physical trait that we can see
genotype internal: genetic makeup for a particular trait, genotype effects pheynotype & vice versa
Priniple of Segregation when a sex cell is formed whatever allels you have only one is passed.
principles of independent assortment each trait is inherated independently, can have recessive & dominant
Homozygous dominant (EE) 2 dominant allels
heterozygous (Ee) 1 dominant, 1 recessive
homozygous recessive (ee) 2 recessive allels
dominant traits anchondroplasia, btachydatyly, neurofibromatosis, marfan syndrome
recessive traits cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs disease, PKU, albinism
Menedel Patterns of inheratence pedigree-family trees
Autosomal traits dominant- passed evenly between a man & a women (heterozygotes)recessive- homozygous recessive
Sex-Linked traits affects only X chromosone
polygenic inheretance many genes effect just one
Pleiotropy one genes effects multiple phenotypes
Modifying Gene one gene alter another
Regulatory gene turn on or off other genes
Incomplete penetrance alelle not expressed depending on enviroment, genes for disease
sex-limited traits expressed by one sex only
locus place on chromosone where a specific gene occurs
alleles set of instruction for a gene, sequence of nucleotides
function of the bone 1.protect/support2.blood cell production3.storage for fat4.store impotant elements
lever system helped by ligaments & muscle
types of joints 1.synoviala.ball & socketb.hingec.saddle-shaped (thumb only)2.cartilaginous (between growth centers)3.fibrousa.cranial sutures
Gross anatomy (shapes, types) 1.tubular2.flat3.blocky-1.compact or cortical2.spongy or trabecular-perisostium (tissue to nourish bones)
Molecular Structure 1.collagen (protein)2.hydroxapatite (mineral, strength)
Wolff's law (1869) bone remodeleing, gain where nedded, lost where uneeded
Bone histology 1.immature2.mature, laid down in layers
Long Bone parts 1.epiphyses/ends2.diaphysis/shaft3.metaphyses/flared ends
osteoblasts make bone
osteclasts remove bone
bone repair 1.hemotoma2.fibrous callus3.osteoblasts respond
bilogical sex 1.size/shape variation2,skull3.pelvis
geographic or population based individual fetures, cranial variation,
harris Lines evidence of health insult on bones
Osteoarthritis arthritis in skeleton
infectious diseases leave proof on bones sometimes, pus
anemias coral lessions
metabolic disorders -rickets
Created by: ar1356