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Chapter 12 GENE

Genetics Chapter 12 Human Heredity

Tumor suppressant genes Prevent growth
Oncology Study of tumors (aka neoplasm) An abnormal growth of tissue
Benign Non-invasive, non- metastatic tumor
Malignant "Badly born", tumor characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis
Anaplasia Rapidly dividing, undifferentiated cells
Metastasis Spread of cancer to other body sites
Categories of malignant neoplasia All end in -oma
Carcinoma Ectodermal cells
Sarcoma Mesodermal cells
Leukemia White blood cells- myeloid or lymphoid lineages
Lymphoma Macrophages and cells of the lymphatic system
Familial Inherited predisposition, mutations are carrier in all cells, recessive at cellular level but inherited as a dominant trait as new somatic mutations accumulate (organism level= dominant)
Sporadic Spontaneous mutations
Cancer is a ____ disease. genetic
Primary risk factor for cancer Age
Stages in cancer cell Metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia, extravasation
Intravasation Enter into bloodstream of cancer cells
Extravasation Exit from bloodstream of cancer cells
Cancer is caused by... An inherited susceptibility or a sporadic event.
Mutator genes Do not cause cancer directly but result in genome instability and increased mutation rate (cancer syndromes)
Oncogenes Increase cell division (proliferative)
Why aren't mutations in proto- oncogenes found among familiar types of cancer? 1. Mutations in DNA repair genes indirectly cause "cancer syndromes" 2. Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma A malignant tumor of the eye arising in retinoblasts (embryonic retinal cells that disappear at about 2 years of age.) Because mature retinal cells do not transform into tumors, this tumor usually occurs only in children. Deletion long arm chromosome 13
RB1 Gene The tumor- suppressing protein pRB controls the G1/S transition in the cell cycle, without pRB, cell division in uncontrolled
Polyps Growths attached to the substrate by small stalks. Commonly found in nose, rectum, and uterus
Created by: tstrange