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fish ancestors of all land animals
agnatha jawless fish that is no longer a taxonomic term
530 million fish evolved __________ years ago
41 percent percentage of freshwater fish species
26,000 living species; more than all other vertebrate groups combined how many living fish species?
800 x more fish adapted to lived in a medium __________ dense than air
salt and water balance fish can adjust to _____________ of environment
1/20th gills extract oxygen from water that has ___________ the oxygen of air
aquatic environment both shaped and constrained fishes evolution
free-swimming protochordate fish descended from __________________ ancestors
agnathans earliest fish-like vertebrates include extinct ostracoderms, and living lampreys and hagfishes
placoderms fish with paired appendages and jaws that went extinct in Carboniferous with no living descendants
cartilaginous fishes lost heavy armor and adopted cartilage as skeleton; flourished during some periods, becoming nearly extinct during others
bony fish dominant fishes today
ray finned and lobe finned two distinct lineages of bony fish
ray finned bony fish radiated to form modern bony fishes
lobe finned sister group to tetrapods; include lungfishes and the coelacanth
oviparous sharks and rays lay an egg capsule immediately after fertilization that attaches to kelp with tendrils; may take up to two years before mini adult hatches
ovoviviparous sharks retain fertilized eggs in reproductive system where they are nourished by yolk of egg; "live" birth
viviparous sharks nourish embryos with maternal bloodstream; "live" birth
live births make it more likely more of the young survive but no other care is given after birth
trunk and tail muscles propel fish forward by undulations
large, rigid head minimizes yaw
less yaw and a fast fish created by a very rigid body
tail or caudal fin largest fin is the ___________ for rapid forward movement
dorsal fins and anal fins assist with lateral stability
gill covers operculum
pectoral fins assist with hovering and slow turning
pelvic fins often small for open water swimmers but larger on bottom dwellers which use them for resting on
heavier fish are slightly ___________ than water
fatty liver a shark has a very ____________ that makes it a little buoyant; must also keep swimming to move it forward and angle itself up
swim bladder bottom dwelling fishes lack a ______________
volume of gas fish an control depth by adjusting ______________ to bladder
gulp air some fish _____________ to fill swim bladder
gill filaments folds of tissue inside the pharyngeal cavity covered by the operculum
85% of O2 from H2O continuous water flow opposite blood flow through capillaries maximizes gas exchange allowing some fish to remove ________________
ram ventilation forward movement pushes more water over gills
lungfish use lungs
eels use skin
bowfin use gills at low temperatures and air bladder at higher temperatures
electric eel has degenerate gills and must gulp air
searching for food and eating fish spend most of their time __________________
zooplankton, insect larvae, and other aquatic animals most carnivores feed on ______________________
swallow food whole since it would block flow of water across gills, most fish ________________________ although a few have teeth that crack prey or have some molars in throat
plants and algae some herbivores eat ______________________
suspension feeders eat plankton using gill rakers to strain food; these fish swim in large schools
stomach used for storage
intestines absorb and digest nutrients
catadromous develop in freshwater but spawn in seawater
anadromous living in sea but spawing in freshwater
Created by: pace_sauce