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Transitions to PN

Final comp. exam

QuestionAnswer
What does PERRL stand for? Pupils are equally, round and reactive to light
Where do you listen for the apical pulse? Fifth intercostal space on the left side.
What are "Normal" breath sound regions? Bronchial, Broncho-vesicular, Vescularmedium
What are the three most common adventitious breath sounds? Crackles, Wheezes, Plural Rub
When is it common to hear Cheyne-stokes pattern? During end of life
In what order do you preform a abdominal inspection? a) auscultate, inspect, palpate b)palpate, auscultate , inspect c)Inspect, Auscultate, Palpate d)Inspect, palpate, auscultate Inspect, Auscultate, Palpate
You have assessed your patient's pedal pulses and have noticed they have 4mm pitting edema on their left lower leg, how you would document this? Edema +2 on left lower extremity
A "normal" capillary refill return will happen in how many seconds? 2 seconds or less
How can you help your patient reduce pain without an order for medication? Distraction technique (taking, rubbing, touching, ect)
What is subjective data? Data that is usually collected from the patient and is mainly opinion.
A blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate is what type of data? Objective data
What is the difference between acute pain and chronic pain? Acute pain is for a short time (onset to 6 months)and is usually sudden. Chronic pain is longer (6 mo. and more), interferes with daily function and is difficult to treat.
A hemorrhage in abdomen that causes pain in the shoulder is known as what type of pain? a)referred pain b)phantom pain Referred Pain
What is a normal respiratory rate? 12-20 breaths per min
What is a normal pulse rate? 60-80 beats per min
While doing rounds, you find a patient cyanotic, with a heart rate of 120 beats per min, and a respiratory rate of 36 breaths per min. What should you do first? A)Apply oxygen and contact the charge nurse B)Call the physician C)Check chart for order Check the chart to see if oxygen has already been ordered. If not, call physician to get order.
What are the early signs of hypoxia? Restlessness, anxiety, tachycardia and tachypnea
What are the late signs of hypoxia? Bradycardia, Extreme restlessness, dyspnea
What are the signs of hypoxia in pediatrics? stridor, nares flare, expiratory grunting, sternal retractions
1-5 liters of oxygen would be appropriate to give through what delivery method? Nasal Cannula
A nasal cannula can provide how much oxygen concentration? 20-40%
What flow rate would you need to use if you were providing oxygen through a simple mask? 5-10 liters per min
What flow rate would you need to use if you were providing oxygen through a venturi mask? 4-8 liters per min
What flow rate would you need to use if you were providing oxygen through a reservoir mask? 6-10 liters per min
What could happen if you give a patient with COPD too much oxygen? The excess oxygen could knock out their dive to breathe and they would go into respiratory failure.
True or False - In the elderly, respiratory rate decreases, gas exchange diminishes, cough reflex decreases and cilary action diminishes. True
Does oxygen or carbon monoxide have a stronger pull to hemoglobin? Carbon Monoxide
What is ventilation? The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
What is Perfusion? The flow of blood through the vessels of a specific organ or body part.
What is Diffusion? The movement of gases from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
How does the nursing process benefit nurses? It provides a common language and framework to give is a consistent, patient oriented way to problem solve.
What are the steps in the Nursing Process? 1- Assessment/Data collection 2- Patient problem / nursing diagnosis 3- planning 4- Implementation 5- Evaluatin
What step of the nursing process does the LPN have the least to do with? Nursing Diagnosis
What methods does an LPN use to collect data? Making observations, interviewing the patient and preforming a physical assessment.
Where should a nurse gather their primary source of data from? The patient
How should you set priorities? according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
What is pain? Whatever the person experiencing it says it is, existing whenever he or she says it does.
What are the 6 rights to medication administration? Drug Dose Documentation Patient Time Route
What is a therapeutic effect of a medication? It is what we expect the drug to do. Ex: Tylenol should relieve a headache.
What is medication tolerance? When the body adapts to a medication, and requires a person to take more to achieve a therapeutic effect.
What is a drug dependence? An overwhelming need for a drug.
What is a side effect? A predictable reaction to a medication. Can be good or bad. Usually not harmful.
What is an adverse effect? A severe reaction that can be harmful to the patient.
What does tetrogenic mean? harmful to a fetus
Idiosyncratic is... an over/under reaction that is not predictable. Also called and "idiot reaction"
What is synergistic? when two or more medications, work together to increase affect.
What is Antagonistic? an opposing interaction. when two or more meds work against each other.
Incompatibility medications that are not chemically able to work together.
What are the types of medication orders? standing, stat, single, PRN, verbal, telephone, electronic/fax
How long should you hold the tear ducts after administrating glaucoma drops? 30-60 seconds
Medication entry on MAR was unreadable due to a spill, what should you do? Copy the info onto the MAR from the original order.
What is the wasting procedure for disposal of a narcotic? Two nurses must witness the medication disposal.
When should you check the label during a medication pass? 1- Before removing from bottle or shelf 2- Before preparing/ measuring actual dose 3- Before returning med to storage
What is another name for a maintenance dose? The plateau dose
What is the trough? It is the minimum drug concentration level in the blood stream.
What are the enteral routes? oral, nasogastric, rectal
What are the percutaneous routes? topical, transdermal, sublingual, buccal, inhalation
What are routes of instillation? eye, ear, nasal, vaginal, implantable
After giving your patient a rectal suppository, how long should they stay laying down? 15-20 min
If you are giving more than one eye drop, how long should you wait to instill the second medication? 5 min
When is the best time to give an eye ointment? HS, to prevent the medication from being wiped/rubbed out.
Why should you warm ear drops before administrating them into the patients ear? to prevent vertigo
What do almost error, near miss and close calls have in common? They are all potential medication errors
Define a sentinel event. A death or serious injury occurred due to an error.
A preventable error is also known as what type of event? Never event
What is the first thing you should do if a medication error has occurred? Maintain patient safety (assess VS)
What is the number one way you can prevent medication errors? always use six rights
Allowing for the patient's input is __________. Autonomy
To do good is ______________. Beneficence
Do no harm is also called____________. Non-maleficence
Being honest is called __________ fidelity
Created by: alesha945