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PSY 301 Test 3

Statistical norms are extreme happiness and intelligence abnormal?
Social norms different cultures and different times have different definitions of norms
cognitive/perceptual disorders is having extremely high self esteem abnormal?
Personal distress subjective feelings can be normal (miserable, anxious, depressed, insomnia)
behavioral maladaptiveness most important! it's a problem when welfare of the individual or their social group is harmed
efficient perception of reality realistic appraisals of their reactions and capabilities and the world around them; basically Not cognitive/perceptual distortion; grounded in reality
voluntary control over behavior decisions to act are voluntary and not due to uncontrollable impulses
self esteem and acceptance feelings of self worth and acceptance; comfortable and spontaneous w/ others
able to form affectionate relationships sensitive to the needs of others; dont make excessive demands; many times serial killers lack this
productivity able to channel energy and ability into productive activity
DSM statistical manual that's a checklist for disorders; put out by the American Psychiatric Association; Psychologists and psychiatrists don't always see eye to eye (psychology looks at how & why while Psychiatrists look at logical symptoms & diagnostics)
DSM-IV has 5 axis; older version of DSM
DSM-IV Axis 1 acute psychological problem (what's wrong now?) ex. depression, insomnia
DSM-IV Axis 2 Long term psychological problems (ex. personality disorders)
DSM-IV Axis 3 Medical problems (may contribute to psychology such as heart surgery leading to depression)
DSM-IV Axis 4 major life changes (death in family, moving); social change
DSM-IV Axis 5 global assessment of functioning (how is the person coping and how do they participate in the environment?)
DSM-V Went from 5 axis to 3 sections
Changes in DSM (Asperger's syndrome& Pervasive Developmental disorders ) Asperger's syndrome& Pervasive Developmental disorders dont exists anymore->now on autism spectrum (pro: hopes of less stigma, con: some ppl need the classification to afford behavioral therapy insurance)
Changes in DSM (bipolar disorder) bipolar now separate from major depression
Changes in DSM (PTSD) Posttraumatic stress disorder no longer classified as anxiety disorder
Changes in DSM (OCD) OCD no longer classified as anxiety disorder
Changes in DSM (exclusion of bereavement) major depression no longer includes an exclusion of bereavement (so no clause to account for things such as death of a loved one)
comorbidity when you get a similar diagnosis between 2 or more disorders
DSM-V (Section 1) Why the DSM was changed
DSM-V (Section 2) List of all disorders despite what axis it was previously listed in
DSM-V (Section 3) Does the job of axis 4 and 5, except axis 5 is only suggested, not required
Lifetime prevalence most times ppl double or tripple dip in disorders (comorbid)
Generalized anxiety to nothing identifiable; persistent; chronic, but some things may make it worse
Panic attacks to nothing identifiable; transient and intense
Phobias to something identifiable; disruptive; exaggerated; irrational; can be simple, social, or complex
Obsessive compulsive disorder obsessive idea generates anxiety relieved by compulsive/ritualistic acts that may not be logically associated with the obsessive idea
Posttraumatic stress disorder acute stress disorder after 30 days since the event occurred, even if symptoms not visible in the first 30 days
Acute stress disorder stress within the first 30 days since the event occurred
Trauma and stress flashbacks, nightmares, sleep problems, can occur by war/natural disasters/accidents/assault; during flashbacks, ppl have lots of adrenaline but low cortisol lvls
Major depression (primary) depression is root problem
Major depression (secondary) depression is caused by something else; ex. heart surgery leading to depression
Major depression (involutional) comes from loss of ability
Major depression (postpartum) occurs in some women after child birth; doesnt always respond to classical depression meds
Major depression (exogenous) due to an external event; sometimes responds to meds, but not always
Major depression (endogenous) has to do with interior brain physiology, usually responds well to meds
Major depression (Seasonal affective disorder) dont receive enough light= depression; mostly happens in the North; there are structures in the brain that pick up a little light thru the skull which regulates sleep cycle
Bipolar disorder aka Manic depression; alternating moods; unresponsive to antidepressants; irritability- possible warning of harm to self; go thru manic (lots of excitement) and depressive (usually longer than manic) states; use mood stabilizers as med; high suicide rates
schizophrenia it has nothing to do w/ multiple personalities; "a break" from reality; disturbances of thought/attention; hallucinations; disturbances of emotional stat; motor withdrawal (waxy flexibility); decreased ability to function
schizophrenia (acute) rarest; doesnt run in families; can occur any time during life; usually in response to a traumatic event; typically doesnt reoccur; not very responsive to antipsychotic meds; doesnt have neurochemical basis
schizophrenia (chronic) appears in late adolescence; most common; go into periodic remission; comorbid w/ ADD& OCD; as patient ages, psychotic episodes get longer, more severe; typically responds well to antipsychotic meds, but have to take it continually
schizophrenia (vulnerability) high risk children (one schizo parent)- more likely to have birth complications, separation from mom, fathers hospitalized, inappropriate behavior at school, atypical pattern of infant development
schizophrenia (type 1) positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, confused thinking), functioned well before appearance of symptoms; disturbed behaviors come and go; responds well to antipsychotic meds; problem in dopamine neurotramission
schizophrenia (type 2) negative symptoms (poverty of speech, emotional unresponsiveness, seclusiveness, impaired attention), poor history of social and edu functioning prior to onset; unresponsive to antipsychotic meds; due to structural brain abnormalities (Flu epidemic)
schizophrenia (CAT and MRI Scans) shows structural abnormalities in the brain's areas involved in thinking, concentration, memory, and perception (cerebral ventricles, frontal and temporal lobes, hippocampus)
schizophrenia (PET scans) show reduced metabolism in the frontal lobes of unmedicated patients; suggests increased # of dopamine receptors in the brains of previously unmedicated sufferers
Personality disorders immature way of coping with traumatic things such as bullying and abuse as a child
Personality disorders (antisocial personality) psychopathic, sociopathic; not to be confused w/ antisocial behavior; no conscious, guilt, empathy, or concern for others; low physiological measures for arousal or anxiety despite an apparent need for thrills and excitement; restless and impulsive
Personality disorders (borderline personality) mass manipulation; extreme fear of abandonment; instability; anxiety attacks; ppl teeter b/w severe neurotic traits and bouts of psychosis; high users of outpatient mental health services
dissociative amnesia sudden memory loss due to a psychologically stressful event; may be brief or prolonged; recovery is often also sudden; memories come back from old life and amnesia life; occurs to adults
dissociative fugue sudden memory loss due to stressful event; recovery duration is variable; after recovery, fugue memories are lost
dissociative identity multiple personality; early emotional trauma (very young child); personalities may or may not be aware of eachother; abnormal EEG measurements during shift in personality; core personality and protector personality
mental hospital care for those who cant care for themselves; brief hospitalization for acute psychotic episodes; used to be many, but not since it became the states' jobs to fund them
general hospital most psychiatric impatient stays; sometimes in a specialized psychiatric ward
nursing home older chromic mental patients; quality of living condition varies; few, if any specialized treatment personnel
halfway houses provides transition to general community; may help seek employment and place to live
community mental health centers free or low cost services; activities aimed at preventing psychological problems where possible
private offices preferred by those who can afford them
psychiatrist MD; can work in any setting but most choose hospital or private practice; can prescribe drugs; mindset is physician like; some do zero talk therapy
clinical psychologist doctorate in psychology with training in research and clinical practice; many employed in universities in addition to private practice
counseling psychologist doctorate in psychology; less research and more clinical emphasis; more likely to see patients w/o a mental disorder
counselor masters degree in counseling; likely to work in school or institution helping ppl deal w/ school or job related problems
psychiatric social workers masters in social work and training in dealing w/ ppl w/ psychological problems; often visit ppl at home and make rudimentary assessments of home situations; state workers; underpaid and overworked
psychiatric nurse bachelors or masters in nursing; usually work in hospitals and may conduct psychotherapy sessions
initial interview purpose is to determine if problem is organic or mental
computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT Scan) 3D xray that can see most large scale injuries; cheap and quick though a little blurry
MRI Scan sharp image up to a mm; more expensive; detects the radio frequencies emitted by water in tissue when a very strong magnetic field is flipped on and off; grayscale (white=bone, black- water/ventricles); gives brain structure
Positron emission tomography (PET scan) measures metabolic activity via weak radioactively labeled markers ; lets you know what parts of the brain are working harder; poorer resolution
EEG cheapest and easiest; least invasive; measures electrical activity in brain; can only see surface (Cortex) of brain; poor spatial resolution; works in real time
mini mental states exam a little over 20 questions, brief quick and dirty exam to assess cognitive function
amytol interview injection of sodium amytol (a barbiturate) followed by questions; makes ppl stoned so they cannot keep up a fake act
clinical interview (structured) predetermined questions w/ no deviation; allows you to compare results across ppl
clinical interview (unstructured) can ask whatever questions in whaterver order
MMPI many many questions; ppl just take subset of test; meant for ppl with almost 100% identifiable disorder
WAIS intelligence test; easily interpretable results
projective tests more art than science; ambiguous pics and ask what do you see? ex. Thematic apperception test (Drawing w/o any context and ask what is going on? ex. ink blot test
free association psychodynamic technique; client is encouraged to give free rein to thoughts and feelings w/o editing or censoring; long rambling conversation; can take years; to get over censorship
cognitive techniques Instruction in self change skills, relaxation therapy, increasing pleasant events, cognitive strategies, assertiveness training, increasing social interaction
counter conditioning the problem the person has is because of a learned component; instead of having a negative response to the stimuli, conditioned to have a positive response
aversion therapy takes same stimuli of something pleasant (like alcohol) and makes the effect something unappealing
systematic desensitization frightened or repelled by something that you shouldnt be; takes relaxing at thought, then picture, then video, then 50 ft away, then closer and closer; long term cure
flooding based on extinction; better for milder probs; person confronts thing that makes them uncomfortable
implosion therapy based on extinction; based on imagining being in that situation
Token economies withhold bad behavior to get what you want; part of operant conditioning
modeling you observe and follow somebody else's actions; part of observational learning
behavioral rehearsal/role playing act like you are something else till u become it; often used in hurting relationship; ; part of observational learning
rational-emotive replace irrational ideas; therapist attacks and contradicts; quick changes
transactional analysis become aware of one's hidden intents; group setting
spontaneous remission ppl suddenly get better
pyschotherapy common factors interpersonal relationship of warmth and trust, reassurance and support, desensitization, reinforcement of adaptive responses, understanding or insight
culture and gender men and women hospitalized at same rate but for different reasons; men= substance abuse; women= mood disorders
antianxiety drug benzodiazepines; enhance the activity of GABA; work quickly; can lead to dependance
antipsychotic drugs Phenothiazines- impair the activity of dopamine, leads to spaztic movements, takes 2-6 weeks to work/// novel- impairs the activity of seratonin and dopamine
antidepressant drugs inhibitors & trycyclics- enhance monamines, side effects: cant eat certain things, can overdose/// seratonin uptake inhibitors- enhance the activity of seratonin, cant overdose on this
shock therapy/ ECT used for extreme suicidal ppl for who other drugs dont work; last distch effort; controversial b/c it can also cause brain damage
Created by: is2903