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Peds chp 15

fluid balance, renal, and reproductive disorders

QuestionAnswer
this occurs when fluid output exceeds fluid intake, regardless of the cause. Dehydration
when fluid intake and output are in balance homeostasis
immature infant kidneys equals poor water conservation
____ are subject to greater evaporation of water from skin infants
rapids respiration's will ______ fluid loss increase
classification of dehydration is based on what? serum sodium levels, isotonic,hypotonic,hypertonic
type of fluids given by route other than digestive tract parenteral fluids
when body receives more fluids then it can excrete overhydration
presence of fluid in the interstital spaces edema
edema in infants may first be seen in these areas presacral,occipital,genital areas
bacterial invasion of the kidneys,ureters,bladder and urethra urinary tract infection
risk factors for uti's urinary stasis, urinary tract anomalies, reflux in the tract system,tight undearwear,wet bathing suits, sex
s/s of urinary tract infections poor feeding, fussiness, delayed growth, foul smelling urine, incontinence
many girls may have these classic uti s/s after first sexual experience frequency, urgency, pain on urination, blood in the urine
these s/s can indicate kidney infection AKA pyelonephritis high fever, chills, flank pain, abdominal pain
nursing teaching for uti no bubble baths or irritating diapers, wipe front to back, wear cotton underwear,increase fluid intake,dont put off going pee, check for s/s of pinworms
treatment for uti 7-14 day course antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole-septra, trimethoprim-bactrim, or penicillins,cephalosporins
occurs as an immune reaction to an infection of the body (antigen-antibody,most common renal disease. mostly seen in kids age 6-7 acute glomerulonephritis
s/s of glomerulonephritis smokey brown or bloody urine,periorbital edema in morning that spreads as the day goes,fatigue, headache,abdominal discomfort, vomiting, oliguria
what is oliguria decrease in urine output
causes of acute glomerulonephritis certain strains of group a b-hemolytic streptococcal, aka strep throat
treatment for acute glomerulonephritis prevetion from being chilled, over tired, exposure from infection, low sodium, low potassium diet,lasix, persistent anuria may need dialysis
refers to the number of different types of kidney conditions that are distinguished by the presence of marked amounts of protein in the urine nephrotic syndrome aka nephrosis
these filter blood in the kidneys, and damage to them allows protein to enter urine glomeruli
s/s of nephrotic syndrome nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight gain, edema, ascites,DARK FROTHY URINE, oliguria, slightly elevated bp
treatment of nephrotic syndrome steriods,diurtics,albumin,low sodium high protein diet,fluid balance with MEASURED urine,skin care,repositioning, infecton control, emotional support
what is enuresis must occur at least twice a week for 3 months and child must be over 5yrs old to be diagnosed with enuresis aka bed wetting
child has never been dry for an extended period of time primary bed wetting
bed wetting after the child has been dry for some time secondary bed wetting
treatment for enuresis never punish,time,meds,fluid restriction after evening meal,bladder training,waking child to void, alarm to signal beds wet
chronic or acuteoth illness that can affect enuresis uti, diabetes,sickle cell, neurologic deficits
one or both testes fail to descend into the scrotum undescended testes
side effect of undescended testes REDUCED FERTILITY due to abdomen being to warm
treatment for undescended testes between 9-15 months a surgical procedure called orchiopexy to bring down in scrotum
the opening of the urinary meatus appears on the ventral or underside of the shaft of the penis hyposadias
the urethral opening in on the dorsal or upper side of the shaft of the penis epispadias
treatment for hyposadias or epispadias surgical repair between 6-12 months old
STD are a worry of peds beacuse teens mature earlier, in gauge in sex earlier, have multiple partners,marring later in life,rate of infection higher in teens
dorsal surface of the penis defect epispadius
foreskin defect phimosis
lower abdomen defect exstrophy of the bladder
scrotal sac defect hydrocele
inguinal canal defect cryptorchidism
bottom or ventral surface of penis defect hypospadias
surgery for hypospadias and chordee, my son is only 8 months old, why doesnt the doctor wait until he is older, most appropriate response by nurse...... children typically become aware of genitalia and gender between ages 3-6, its perferable to do the surgery when they are young enough to protect their self image
what objective data should the nurse expect to see with a toddler who has nephrotic syndrome 3+ to 4+ protein in the urine
medications for enuresis antidiuretics-desmopressin acetate,tricyclic antidepressants- imipramine hydrochloride(tofranil), anticholinergics-oxybutynin chloride(ditropan)
MEDS-used to reduce volume of urine in bladder adverse effects,headache, nausea, flushing, fluid retention, mild abdominal cramps,NCT- restrict fluids after dinner,give at bed time,keep nasal meds in fridge antidiuretics-desmopressin acetate
MEDS-reduces bladder contractions adverse effects- dry mouth, nausea, drowsiness, allergic reaction. anticholinergics-oxybutynin chloride (ditropan)
rule of thumb for urine output 2ml/kg/hr for infants, 0.5 to 1ml/kg/hr for a child
a downward curvature of the penis resulting from tight fibrous band usually with hypospadias chordee
Created by: 1291874102