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Ch.15

Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
List the examples of local winds. land and sea breezes
What are the auroras and where are they found? Shimmering lights found in the ionosphere. (thermosphere)
Our ozone layer absorbs which type of harmful radiation from the sun? UV rays
How much oxygen and carbon dioxide is found in our air? oxygen 21% and carbon dioxide less than 1%
Which global wind blows away from the poles to the west? Polar Easterlies
What are the 2 most abundant gases found in the air? nitrogen and oxygen
Describe air pressure. Air pressure is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface.
What happens to air pressure as altitude increases? air pressure decreases
Describe jet streams. Narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
What is the greenhouse effect? gases in the atmosphere absorb thermal energy
Explain the 3 ways that heat is transferred. Convection-energy through heat or gas Radiation-electromagnetic waves; indirect Thermal Conduction- material/ direct contact
Where do trade winds flow toward? both hemispheres blow 30 degrees latitude toward the equator
What does the Coriolis Effect make the winds do? curving of winds and currents due to Earth's rotation
Describe the doldrums. trade winds meet in an area near the equator; very light winds-dull
What is the ozone layer and where is it found? The ozone layer is found in the stratosphere, and it is a layer of oxygen that absorbs most of the sun's UV rays.
Describe the thermosphere. Uppermost layer of the atmosphere where temp. increase due to solar radiation. Aurora Borealis occurs here.
What is the most common atmospheric gas? nitrogen
What parts of the earth cools off faster and heats up faster? What does this unequal heating create? land cools and heats up fastest; creates winds
What is smog? air pollution that is formed when the ozone and vehicle exhaust react to sunlight
Describe the movement of convection currents. with a heat source cold air sinking dense air pushes warm light dense air- continues in a cycle
Which instrument measures air pressure? barometer
What is significant about the troposphere? we live here and it's where weather happens
What kind of ways have humans created air pollution? car exhaust, burning fossil fuels, and deforestation
What is another name for the distance above sea level? altitude and elevation
What are global winds? Combination of convection cells at every 30 degrees latitude; winds that blow
What does the name of a wind tell you? Wind name can tell you where the wind is coming from
How much of the sun's energy actually reaches the Earth? 2 billionths
What property are the layers of the atmosphere based on? temperature
Which calm area is located around 30 degrees north and south latitude? horse latitudes
What is the atmosphere? mixture of gases that surround the Earth
List the 3 global winds and the 2 calm winds? Global winds~Polar Easterlies, Westerlies, Trade Winds. Calm~Doldrums, Horse Latitudes
What is global warming? an average increase in average global temperatures
If air mass increases what happens to density? density decreases
What type of winds blow over short distance? local winds
How are all winds created? Unequal heating of the Earth's surface.
Created by: icecreamlover8
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