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science ch 2 vocab

abrasion The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
acidic A word used to describe a substance that reacts strongly with metals and changes blue litmus paper red
basic A word used to describe a substance that feels slippery and changes red litmus paper blue
bedrock The solid layer of rock beneath the soil
chemical weathering The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
conservation plowing Soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place
contour plowing Plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
crop rotation The planting of different crops in a field each year to maintain the soil's fertility
crystal A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
decomposer Soil organism that breaks down the remains of organisms and digests them
Dust Bowl The area of the Great Plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930s
erosion The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock or soil
fertility A measure of how well soil supports plant growth
humus Dark-colored organic material in soil
ice wedging Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
igneous rock A type of rock that forms form the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
litter The loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
loam Rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
mechanical weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
metamorphic rock A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
mineral A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
natural resource Anything in the environment that humans use
nonrenewable resource A natural resource that is not replaced in a useful time frame
ore Rock that contains a metal or economically useful mineral
oxidation A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
permeable Characteristic of a material that is full of tiny, connected air spaces that water can seep through
rock cycle A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
sediment Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion
sedimentary rock A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
smelting The process by which ore is melted to separate the useful metal from other elements
sod A thick mass of grass roots and soil
soil The loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
soil conservation The management of soil to prevent its destruction
soil horizon The layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above and below it
subsoil The layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and other minerals
topsoil Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil
uniformirarianism The geologic principle that the same geologic processes that operate today operated in the past to change Earth's surface
weathering The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at earth's surface
Created by: 527906154