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ELED 316

Test #1

Oral Language foundation for reading
6 Language Arts and 2 categories Receptive (Reading, Viewing, Listening) Expressive (Writing, Talking, Visual Representation)
Cueing Systems Semantic cues, Syntactic cues, Graphophonological cues, Pragmatics cues
Semantic cues or meaning cues are the ones that students get from a composite of the print, pictures, and content of the whole text.
Syntactic cues structural or grammar cues; help the reader make predictions based on what makes sense in the English language.
Graphophonological cues visual and sound cues; help the reader determine the pronunciation of a word in print, based on the letters she sees.
Pragmatics cues from their social environment. Children gain this information from communicating with others in their homes and communities.
Automaticity fluent processing of information that requires little effort or attention, as sight-word recognition. (Rule – 1 second or less)
Schema activating prior knowledge, different for every person. Consists of our knowledge about “objects, situations, events, sequences of events, actions, and sequences of actions.”
Transactional Theory (Rosenblatt) readers transact with the text, meaning they construct leaning. Efferent response Aesthetic response
Efferent response read to gain information from the text
Aesthetic response narrative text/story with emotions. (Nonfiction) uses background knowledge and emotions to make meaning from text.
Social constructivist/sociocultural theory Have to have an expert and a novice. Expert uses language, objects and visuals. Vygotsky (zone of proximal development – not too easy and not too hard)
3 Models of reading • Whole (top down, ex: break to skills) • Part (bottom up, NCLB, skills upon skills) letters and sounds together working towards reading a book • Balanced (mixture of whole and part)
Kidwatching approach to assessment part of ongoing model; teachers watch students, take notes, and conduct quick assessments to determine a student’s ability.
Explicit Teaching tell students exactly what needs to be produced when they blend sounds. Teach phonetic elements directly. Let students hear and see how letters represent sounds.
Explanation Teaching outlines the desired behavior in a set of steps or procedures. (Clear and direct, vocab is age appropriate, do not assume student already knows how to accomplish objective.)
Facilitative Teaching type of instruction that is less direct, yet enables students to comprehend what they read.
Mental Modeling teaching behavior that teachers use when they model their own cognitive activity by making “their reasoning visible to the novice.”
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation – motivating self, within you Extrinsic motivation – stickers, prizes, pizza, etc.
ELL English Language Learner
ESL English As A Second Language
EFL English as a Foreign Language
LEP Limited English Proficiency
ESOL English for Speakers of Other Languages
Bilingual Knowledge and use of two languages
FARM Free And Reduced Meals, children close or in poverty.
SES Socioeconomic status
Diversity and accommodations -Different types/characteristics/people -Variety/diverse -Bring in different people and their cultures and integrate into community -Race/ethnicity -Cultures, SES and gender -Different learning levels Melting pot Accepting and embracing diversity
Minority/Majority (Maryland) minority children are the largest group in the state.
Period of Silence ELL student sits quietly in class because they are too embarrassed or scared to speak.
Teacher Expectation and Beliefs All Children Can Learn
Emerging literacy/literates when children are just learning to read and write.
Interactive read aloud and characteristics voice, predictions, ask questions, activate prior knowledge, appropriate speed, show pictures, introduce a topic, new vocabulary
Concepts of print • Understanding print is left to right • Top of page to bottom of page • Front to back • Author and illustrator • Text carries message (not picture) • Difference between a letter, word and sentence.
Approximations beginning steps of emergent reading. Examples: book upside down, invented spelling, scribble writing.
Invented spelling Students are allowed to spell unknown words according to sounds and familiar patterns
Emergent writing Goal is for them to read on their own through practice and experience.
Environmental Print logo graphics (McDonalds, Wendy’s, Toys R Us)
Fiction and non-fiction texts and other terms for them Informational Text - nonfiction, Expository Text A story is called _______ text. (fiction or narrative)
Rhyming large units of sound are easier to manipulate than smaller units of sound.
Phonemes/Graphemes phonemes (sound) graphemes (letters/symbols)
Alphabet important because you cant read unless you know the letters, sounds and names of letter.
3 parts of the brain and how it impacts learning
Phonemic awareness sounds of languages; auditory; hear and discriminate. (Baby lulling and babbling)
Explicit instruction techniques are teacher-directed and when done “with-in the context of a specific text,” they help prepare students to construct meaning from what they read.
Word patterns as in words by analogy students can process spelling patterns by searching their memory bank for the pattern and producing a pronunciation based on a word they know.
Created by: sdorsey2