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Ch. 15

study guide

List the examples of local winds. Mountain breezes and brezzes
What are the auroras and where are they found? Auroras are ions that radiate energy as shimmering lights. They are found in the ionoshpere.
Our ozone layer absorbs which type of harmful radiation from the sun? UV radiation
How much oxygen and carbon dioxide is found in our air? 21% oxygen, 1% carbon dioxide
Which global wind blows away from the poles to the west? polar easterlies
What are the 2 most abundant gases found in the air? Nitrogen and Oxgen
Describe air pressure. Air pressure is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface.
What happens to air pressure as altitude increases? Air pressure decreases the farther away you are from the earth, it increases the closer you arae to the earth.
Describe jet streams. Jet streams are narrow belts of high-speed winds in the upper part of the troposphere and lower stratosphere.
What is the greenhouse effect? The greenhouse effect is the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth.
Explain the 3 ways that heat is transferred. Heat can be transferred through convectioon, conduction, or radiation.
Where do trade winds flow toward? equator
What does the Coriolis Effect make the winds do? Make winds flow in curved paths instead of flowing straight.
Describe Doldrums. Doldrums are trade winds that occur in the northern and southern hemisphere.
What is the ozone layer? Where is it found? A layer of the atmosphere that absorbs harmful UV rays. It is found between the stratosphere and the mesosphere.
Describe the thermosphere. The uppermost atmospheric layer is called the thermosphere.
What is the most common atmospheric gas? nitrogen
What parts of the earth cool faster and heats up faster? What does this unequal heating create? Land heats up faster than water and water cools faster than land. These create local wind.
What is smog? A combination of smoke and fog.
Describe the movement of convection currents. Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas.
Which instrument measures air pressure? Barometer
What is significant about the troposphere? It is the densest atmospheric layer.
What kind of ways have humans created air pollution? transportation, industrial plants, or ventilation.
What is another name for the distance above sea level? altitude
What are global winds? The pattern of air circulation
What does the name of a wind tell you? Where it comes from and how fast or slow it is.
How much of the sun's energy actually reaches the Earth? 70%
What property are the layers of the atmosphere based on? temperature change
Which calm area is located around 30 degrees north and south latitude? horse latitudes
What is the atmosphere? A mixture of gases that surround the earth.
List the 3 global winds and 2 calm areas? global- jet streams, polar easterlies, polar westerlies calm- mountain and valley breezes
What is global warming? An increase in average global temperature.
If air mass increases what happens to density? density increases
What type of winds blow over short distances? local winds
How are winds created? differences in air pressure
Created by: 200320744