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Unit III

Shock

QuestionAnswer
Is an abnormal clinical syndrome involving impaired cardiac pumping and/or filling. Heart Failure
____ and ____ are the primary risk factors for HF. CAD & Advancing age
Results from the inability of the heart to pump blood effectively. Systolic HF
The hallmark of systolic dysfunction? ↓EF
The inability of the ventricles to relax and fill during diastole. Diastolic HF
You will have pulmonary congestion, pulmonary HTN, ventricular hypertrophy and a NORMAL EF. Diastolic HF (S/S)
The most common type of HF; which causes increased pulmonary pressures l/t pulmonary congestion and edema. Left-sided HF
Right ventricular dilation & hypertrophy caused by pulmonary disease. Cor pulmonale
One of the earliest symptoms of chronic HF. Fatigue
Patients with HF and an EF less than ___ have a high risk of fatal dysrhythmias. 35%
Is done in pts who develop unexplained, new-onset HF that is unresponsive to usual care. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)
What are normal BNP levels? <100pg/mL
Is a device that increases coronary blood flow to the heart muscle and ↓ the hearts workload through a process called counter pulsation. Intaaortic Ballon Pump (IABP)
Are the primary drug of choice for blocking the RAAS system in HF patients w/ systolic dysfunction. ACE inhibitors
The primary lesions of IE, consist of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets, and microbes that adhere to the valve surface or endocardium. Vegetations
An infection of the endocardial layer of the heart. Infective Endocarditis
A condition caused by inflammation of the pericardial sac. Pericarditis
The most commonly identified virus of pericarditis. coxsackie B virus
The hallmark of acute pericarditis? Pericardial Friction Rub
A decrease in SBP w/ inspiration that is exaggerated in cardiac tamponade. Pulsus Paradoxus
The ___ is useful in the diagnosis of acute pericarditis, w/ abnormalities noted in approximately 90% of the cases. ECG
DOE, hemoptysis; fatigue; A-Fib on ECG, palpitations, stroke; Loud S1; low-pitched, rumbling diastolic murmur. Mitral Valve Stenosis
Poorly tolerated; new systolic murmur w/ pulmonary edema & cardiogenic shock develop rapidly. Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation
Weakness, fatigue, exertional dyspnea, palpitations; S3 Gallop, holosystolic or pansystolic murmur. Chronic Mitral Regurgitation
___ is the most common form of valvular heart disease in the US, occurring in 2% to 6% of the population. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain, activity intolerance, syncope; midsystolic click, late or holosystolic murmur. Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Angina, syncope, DOE, HF; norma or sot S1, diminished or absent S2, systolic murmur, prominent S4. Aortic Stenosis
Abrupt onset of profound dyspnea, chest pain, left ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. Acute Aortic Valve Regurgitation
Fatigue, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, PND; water-hammer pulse; diminished S1, S3, or S4; soft high-pitched diastolic murmur, Austin Flint murmur. Chronic Aortic Regurgitation
Peripheral edema, ascites, hepatomegaly; diastolic low-pitched, decrescendo murmur w/ increased intensity during inspiration. Tricuspid Stenosis
Fatigue, loud midsystolic murmur. Pulmonic Stenosis
Is associated with left ventricular dilation and decreased EF. Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Is associated w/ left ventricular hypertrophy that decreases the ability of the chambers to relax (diastolic dysfunction). Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Is associated w/ normal left ventricular size, slightly depressed EF, and a marked decrease in cardiac muscle compliance. Constrictive Cardiomyopathy
Develops over hours to days; it is a situation in which a pt BP is severely elevated (often above 220/140) w/ evidence o acute target organ damage especially to the central nervous system. Hypertensive Emergency
An out-pouching or dilation of the vessel wall. Aneurysm
Three fourths of aortic aneurysms occur in the ______ aorta. Abdominal
Aneurysmal growth rates may be lowered by treatment with these drugs. Statins
The most common etiology of descending AAA's is ______. Atherosclerosis
Is one in which he wall of the artery forms the aneurysm, with at least one vessel layer still intact. True Aneurysm
Embolization of plaque causing patchy mottling of the feet and toes in the presence of palpable pedal pulses. "Blue toe syndrome"
Is the most accurate test to determine the length and cross-sectional diameter, and the presence of thrombus in the aneurysm. CT scan
V1-V4(LAD) Anteroseptal MI
Lead II & III & aVF(RCA) Inferior wall MI
V5-V6 & Lead I(LAD & Circumflex) Anterolateral MI
What are the four classifications of shock. Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, Distributive, Obstructive
Is a syndrome characterized by decreased tissue perfusion and impaired cellular metabolism. Shock
Occurs when either systolic or diastolic dysfunction of the pumping action of the heart results in reduced cardia output; Increase PAWP, Decrease BP. Cardiogenic Shock
The hearts inability to pump the blood forward. Systolic Dysfunction
Is a hemodynamic phenomenon that can occur within 30min of a spinal cord injury at T5 vertebra or above and last up to 6 weeks; Everything Low & Poikilothermia. Neurogenic Shock
Failure of two or more organ systems. Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MODS)
The presence of sepsis w/ hypotension despite fluid resuscitation along w/ the presence of inadequate tissue perfusion. Septic Shock
What are the 3 stages of shock. Compensatory, Progressive, & Irreversible stage
The patient in early shock will feel ____ & Flushed due to hyper dynamic state. warm
The cardiovascular system is profoundly affected in the ______ of stage of shock (Decrease LOC; Anasarca; cold clammy). Progressive
Generalized inflammation in organs remote from the initial insult. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
Is the failure of two or more oran systems in an acutely ill patient such that homeostasis cannot be maintained w/o intervention. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS)
The most common cause of SIRS/MODS? Sepsis
Created by: BOjangles1006