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RADT 465

Image Production and Evaluation

QuestionAnswer
What are visibility factors for image quality? Density/Brightness and Contrast/Gray Scale (Saia, pg 298)
What are geometric factors for image quality? Detail/Resolution and Distortion (Saia, pg 298)
What are the exposure factors? mA, time, kV, and distance (Saia, pg 298)
What are the types of distortion? Size distortion(magnification) and shape distortion (elongation/foreshortening) (Saia, pg 298)
What are factors affecting recorded detail/resolution? OID, SID, Focal spot size, patient factors, intensifying screens, motion (Saia, pg 298)
What are factors affecting size distortion? OID, SID (Saia, pg 298)
What are factors affecting shape distortion? alignment of x-ray tube, anatomic part, and IR (Saia, pg 298)
When does subject/object unsharpness occur? object shape does not coincide with the shape of x-ray beam, object plane is not parallel with x-ray tube or IR, anatomic objects of interest are not in the path of the CR, anatomic objects of interest are a distance from the IR (Saia, pg 303)
How is unsharpness/blur related to focal spot size? Directly (Saia, pg 308)
How is unsharpness/blur related to SID? Inversely (Saia, pg 308)
True or False: the use of a small focal spot improves recorded detail? True (Saia, pg 308)
When is the anode heel affect most pronounced? when using large IRs, short SIDs, and small anode angles (Saia, pg 309)
How do we minimize voluntary motion? good communication and suspended respiration (Saia, pg 310)
How do we minimize involuntary motion? short exposure time, part support and stabilization, special immobilization devices (Saia, pg 310)
What are the rare earth phosphors? Gadolinium, Lanthanum, Yttrium (Saia, pg 311)
What is the greatest adversary of recorded detail? motion (Saia, pg 310)
As intensifying screen speed increases, what else increases? x-ray tube life (Saia, pg 313)
As intensifying screen speed increases, what decreases? patient dose (Saia, pg 313)
When is quantum mottle most likely to occur? when using fast screens with low mAs and high kV (Saia, pg 313)
True or False: Intensifying screens are unrelated to digital imaging? True (Saia, pg 313)
What is responsible for more than 98% of film emulsion exposure? fluorescent light (Saia, pg 313)
What is the reciprocity law? Any combination of mA and exposure time that will produce a particular mAs, will produce identical image density (Saia, pg 317)
What describes the amount of blackening on an x-ray image or part of the image? Density (Saia, pg 317)
What is directly proportional to the intensity/exposure rate/number of x-ray photons produced? mAs (Saia, pg 317)
What are the three things that x-ray photons can do within an anatomic part? penetrate through the part, scatter through the part, be absorbed by the part (Saia, pg 320)
What type of grids are there? parallel or focused and stationary or moving (Saia, pg 324)
What are some factors of filtration? reduces patient skin dose, minimum 2.5 mm Al equivalent, inherent x added=total filtration, increases overall average energy of x-ray beam (Saia, pg 330)
When do we use compensation filtration? used for anatomic parts having very different thickness/absorption properties, used to 'balance' tissue densities; improves visualization of all tissues (Saia, pg 330)
What are examples of additive pathologic conditions? ascites, RA, Paget disease, PNM, atelectasis, CHF, edematous tissue (Saia, pg 333)
What are examples of destructive pathologic condtions? osteoporosis, osteomalacia, pneumoperitoneum, emphysema, degenerative arthritis, atrophic and necrotic conditions (Saia, 333)
What is the function of contrast? to make details visible (Saia, pg 339)
True or False: Digital imaging significantly improves dynamic range and contrast resolution? True (Saia, pg 341)
Created by: cltuggle