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MicroLab Practical2

Micro Lab Practical 2 Spring 2014

TermDefinition
Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) Selective for: salt tolerance (staphylococcus) - Growth = Staphylococcus - NO growth = not Staphylococcus Differential for: Mannitol fermentaion - agar turns yellow = ferments mannitol - no color change = negative for mannitol fermentaion.
Selective Media Inhibits certain organisms and encourages others to grow well
Differential Media Indicators expose differences between organisms. Bacteria will grow different colors.
Catalase Test -Breaks H2O2 into H2O and O2 + results if bubbles when H2O2 mixed with bacteria. Differentiates b/w Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. - Staph - is positive - Strep - is negative An enzyme found in aerobes, microaerophiles and facultative anaerobes.
Coagulase Test (StaphTex Kit) Differential for Staphylococcus vs. other staphylococci species + results: Blue clumping after addition of solution to bacteria w/in 5-10 sec. Coagulase and protein A present. + result = S aureus - result = S epidermitis
Streptococcus Organisms Latex Agglutination (StrepPro Grouping kit) Differential for B-hemolytic streptococci sprecies. + result: blue clumping after bacteria mixed with solution. - Lancefield serological grougings - Group A, B, C, D, F OR G Strep
Cardinal Temperature The minimum, optimum and max temps bacteria will grow.
Optimum Temperature The tempurature at which the growth rate is the HIGHEST.
Psychrophiles Temps of - 30deg C or below
Psychrotrophs Temps - 0-30deg C
Mesophiles Temps - 15-45deg C - MOST PATHOGENS
Thermophiles Temps - Above 40deg C
Extreme Thermophiles Temps - 65-110deg C
Acidophiles Grow well below pH 5.5
Neutrophiles Prefer pH b/w 5.5-8.5 MOST PATHOGENS! *Bacteria maintain an internal pH near neutral
Alkaliphiles Live about pH 8.5
UV Radiation (Electromagnetic Radiation) - Kills bacteria by damaging the DNA - Specifically THYMINE DIMERS - Once enough genes are damaged the bacteria cannot survive. Longer exposure kills more. *E coli - not UV tolerant *Bacillus subtilis (in soil) - more UV tolerant and endospore former.
Anaerobic Jar Agar plates placed in special container and placed in incubator. -Chemicals in packet inside jar use up all the free oxygen and make an ANAEROBIC environment *Obligate aerobes will not be able to grow.
Antiseptics Removes vegetative pathogens from LIVING TISSUE. DOES NOT KILL ENDOSPORES!!!
Obligate Aerobes REQIURES OXYGEN to grow
Facultative Anaerobe Grows BETTER with oxygen, but can live without
Obligate Anaerobe CAN'T tolerate O2 and will NOT GROW when present.
Microaerophiles Grows best in REDUCED OXYGEN environments
Aerotolerant Anaerobes Doesn't use oxygen to grow, but they tolerate it without adverse effects
Superoxide dismutase an enzyme used to neutralize negatively charged oxygen molecules (O2-) called superoxide radicals. Those molecules are produced when many organisms produce ATP. Superoxide dismutase converts these molecules to Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Catalase an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen (O2).
Peroxidase an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water without making molecular oxygen.
Disinfectant Chemical that destroys vegetative pathogens. WILL NOT KILL ENDOSPORES! - To be used on surfaces not people
Sterilization The highest level of microbial control. Kills ALL forms of microbial life including endosopores.
Commercial sterilization Heat treatment strong enough to kill endospores of Clostridium botulism. - used in canning indusrty.
Germicides Chemicals that kill microbes
Bactericidal Chemicals kill bacteria but not other microbes
Bacteriostatic Keep bacteria from growing. - do NOT actually kill the bacteria
Nonionizing radiation - Weaker type of radiation - UV light - damages the nucleic acids. Causes Thymine dimers. - Bactericidal - Used for disinfecting surfaces, air and drinking water.
Ionizing radiation - Stronger type - Xray and gamma rays - cause breaks in the DNA backbone and damage cell membranes - Can pass thru packaging - sterilize surgical instruments in wrappers - Eliminates pathogens in food.
Enterotube II Used for identification of enteric bacteria * Found in the gut - Gram negative - Bacilli - MUST BE OXIDASE NEGATIVE! * Would use patients stool sample to perform test.
Blood Agar Differential hemolysis of RBC's - Gamma= no hemolysis (enterococcus) - Alpha= green color, partial hemolysis (norma flora) - Beta= Clear, complete (Group A Strep) *Hemolysis occurs due to EXOTOXINS called HEMOLYSINS. hemolytic Gram + cocci PATHOGENS
Epidemic More than expected cases of particular disease in specific area.
Endemic A disease or condition regularly found among particular people or in a certain area.
Pandemic A disease prevalent in more than one continent.
Heard immunity *VACCINATE MOST TO PROTECT ALL -General immunity to a pathogen in a population based on the acquired immunity to it by a high proportion of members over time.
Morbidity Number of people with a disease in a population
Mortality Rate Incidence of death in a population during a specified time interval.
Incidence the rate at which new cases occur in a population during a specified period
Reservoir of infection Any person, animal, plant, soil or substance in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies.
Portals of entry a pathway into the host that gives an agent access to tissue that will allow it to multiply or act. - use the same portal to enter a new host that they used to exit the source host.
Epidemiology/Epidemiologist Investigate disease outbreaks to determine: - Causative agent - Reservoir - Route of Transmission *Allows them to recommend ways to minimize spread.
MMWR Report -Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. -Prepared by the CDC every week Monitors infectious diseases throughout country -Based on weekly reports from the state health departments of reportable diseases.
Prevalence the proportion of a population that is affected by the disease at a specific time
Propagated epidemic Transmission of disease from one person to another thru direct contact, vehicleborne (sharing needles), vecotrborne (mosquito bite). Cases occur over more than one incubation period
Common source epidemic When a group are all exposed to an infectious agent or a toxin from the same source. - Number of cases spikes quickly and then drops quickly. *Contaminated drinking water
Fomites any inanimate object that can carry disease-causing organisms.
Incidence Rate a measure of frequency of new cases of illness expressed per a time frame. -calculated as the number of new cases over a specified period divided either by the average population or by the cumulative person-time the population was at risk.
Index Case The first case or instance of a patient coming to the attention of health authorities.
Communicable disease Disease directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, from animal to man, from animal to animal, or from the environment (through air, water, food, etc..) to man
Contagious disease Disease transmitted through contact. - Scabies, STD's
Portals of Exit a pathway by which an agent can leave its host. - usually corresponds to the site where the pathogen is localized * influenza exits via resp tract
Modes of transmission Infectious agent transmitted to susceptible host by: -Direct = Direct contact, Droplet spread -Indirect = Airborne, Vehicleborne and Vectorborne
Infectious diseases Caused by pathogenic microorganisms. -can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another
Non-Communicable disease/Non-Infectious diseases Chronic diseases not passed from person to person. Can be genetic. Long duration and generally slow progression. 4 main types: -Cardiovascular -Cancer -Chronic Respiratory -Diabetes
Zoonosis An infection that is transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man - Rabies, Plague
Opportunistic infection Organisms that take the opportunity provided by a defect in host defense or immunity to infect the host.
Decontamination The removal or neutralization of a contaminating substance, such as poisonous gas or a radioactive material.
Vegetative Cell An actively metabolizing cell.
Spore A dormant, reproductive cell formed by certain organisms. -It is thick-walled and highly resistant to survive under unfavorable conditions so that when conditions revert to being suitable it gives rise to a new individual
Direct ELISA Uses known antibodies attached to wells to detect the presence of particular antigen.
Indirect ELISA Used to determine the presence of specific antibody (HIV antibody) in serum.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Kirby-Bauer Method Disk Assay. Start with MacFarland Tube for proper turbidity. - Measure Zone of Inhibition (diameter in mm) for each ATB and compare to chart.
Eukaryotic Organisms Categories: Helminth, Protist or Fungus - Can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic *Similar to human cells.
Non-Pathogenic Protozoans Mixed Green Algae Mixed Diatoms Spirogyra (an algae)
Mixed Green Algae Photosynthetic Are all GREEN from Chloroplasts Have a nuclei
Mixed Diatoms Are MULTI-COLORED with glassy/silica shell Used in making glass and whitening toothpaste
Spirogyra (an algae) Non-pathogenic Have nucleus
Pathogenic Protozoans -Two forms: Cysts and Trophozites Entamoeba histolytica Balantidium coli Giardia lamblia Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium vivax Trichomonas vaginalis Tryanosoma gambiense
Entamoeba histolytica *Amoebic dysentary, bloody diarrhea
Balantidium coli *Intestinal disease - Has nucleus and cyst wall
Giardia lamblia *Giardiasis - Treated with Flagyl Through contaminated drinking water. - Heart shaped with 2 nuclei and flagella - Has protective shell Can survive outside body for long periods of time. Resistant to UV radiation
Plasmodium falciparum * Malaria - Obligate INTRACELLULAR PARASITE - has to reproduce inside host cell - Infection of RBC's Vector is Anopheles mosquito
Plasmodium vivax * Recurring Malaria - Rapid division in Liver Transmitted by vector - Mosquito
Trichomonas vaginalis *Trichomoniasis Very common - Can be STD or from improper wiping and hygeine - has an undulating membrane with many flagells.
Tryanosoma gambiense * African Sleeping Sickness - Extracellular - not inside RBC, just in blood Vector - Tsetse fly
Pathogenic Fungi Have chitin cell walls - Dimorphic (2 shapes): YEAST (CIRCULAR) AND MOLD (LONG/TUBULAR) Aspergillis Rhizopus (Bread mold) Penicillium Candida albicans Pneumocystis carinii
Aspergillis * Aspergillosis - Can be dangerous in people with compromised immune system. VERY COMMON - no harmful in healthy people
Rhizopus (Bread mold) * Bread mold * Zygomycosis in diabetics and immunocompromised patients. Has GOLD spores Rhizoid shape
Penicillium - NON-PATHOGENIC Paint brush like shape * Opportunistic infections in: Lungs, Liver and Skin in immunocompromised patients. - What antibiotic Penicillin original discovered in.
Candida albicans * Yeast infections, Thrush Normal flora in resp, GI and female GU -Dimorphic - Yeast and filamentous (Hyphae) forms -Opportunistic pathogen Common in: Diabetics, patients with foley, on anti-microbials and immunosuppressed.
Parasitic Helminths *Roundworms, Tapeworms (Cestodes) & Flatworms (Flukes) Trichuris trichuria (Roundworms) Enterobius vermicularis (Pinworms) Schistosoma mansoni Taenia pisiformis (Tapeworms) Trichinella spiralis (Roundworms)
Enterobius vermicularis (Pinworms) * Human pathogen Eggs found in stool or around anus - "Scotch tape" method to anus to detect.
Schistosoma mansoni * Parasitic and found in LIVER AND INTESTINES
Taenia pisiformis (Tapeworms) - Body divided into segments called proglottids. Each segment has reproductive parts. - Head called SCOLEX and has suckers and hooks to latch on to host. -Hermaphrodites
Trichinella spiralis (Roundworms) * Trichinosis - Encysted roundworms in muscle tissue. Used to be what made pork not kosher and unable to eat.
Arthropod (Insect) Vectors Mosquitos Human Louse Deer Fly Ixodes dammini
Mosquitos * Transmits MALARIA
Human Louse * Transmits PLAGUE
Deer Fly * LYME DISEASE
Ixodes dammini * LYME DISEASE - Deer Tick
Pneumocystis carinii * Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia (PCP) - Opportunistic pathogen in AIDS Grows in lungs and adheres to alveolar cells. Inhibits gas exchange - Hard to treat
Created by: marynoggle