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Pharmacology

Pharm LPN

QuestionAnswer
Method of organizing drugs based on their therapeutic usefulness in TX particular diseases. Therapeutic Classification
related to the chemical or official name. This name is usually lower case. Generic Name
refers to the way an agent works at the cellular, tissue, body system level. Pharmacologic Classification
designated and patented by the manufacture. This name is usually capitalized. Trade (brand) Name
Medications administered this way have no pharmaceutic phase SubQ, IM, IV
This phase includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion pharmacokinetic phase
Pharmaceutic phase = Disintegration and Dissolution
These remain in the gut for a longer period of time which delay their effect and should not be crushed. Enteric Coated drugs
This phase is where the drug is processed to achieve drug action pharmacokinetic phase
Movement of a substance from site of administration, across the body membranes, to circulating fluids Absorption
What affects drug absorption? Blood flow, Pain, Stress, Hunger, fasting, food, and PH
This is the percent of the administered drug dose that reaches circulation. Bioavailibility
the process where the drug becomes available to body fluids and tissue Distribution
drugs that are not bound to protein are Free Drugs
Causes of low serum albumin levels Malnutrition, Liver/kidney disease, advanced aging
Serum albumin levels between 3.5 - 5.0 g/dL are Normal
Severe depletion of serum albumin is less than 2.1
The Liver is the primary site for Metabolism
the time it takes for one half of the drug concentration to be eliminated Half Life
Kidney’s is the main organ for excretion
Creatinine is normally measured through urine and blood serum
Disintegration of dosage form. Break down of drug Pharmaceutical phase
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion Pharmacokinetic phase
Drug-receptor interaction. Effect of medication. Pharmacodynamics phase
The study of drug concentration and the effects it has on the body Pharmacodynamics
a desirable effect Primary effect
desirable or undesirable effect Secondary Effect
time it takes for the medication to reach minimum effective concentration onset
the medication has reached its highest blood level or plasma concentration. peak
the length of time the medication has a pharmacologic effect Duration
lowest plasma concentration of a drug trough
rate of absorption Peak
rate of elimination trough
Used for immediate medication response, a large dose (higher amount), given for rapid effective concentration in the plasma or Prime the bloodstream with a level sufficient to quickly induce a therapeutic response Loading dose
Five rights Right PT. Right drug Right dose Right time Right route
Antidote to Narcotics Narcan
major adverse effects of narcotics resp. depression, urinary retention, orthostatic hypotension, constipation
Labs for narcotics Liver func., Renal Func. ,
Renal Func. Labs BUN, Creatinine, GFR
Liver (hepatic) Func labs AST, ALT
Most common non narcotic analgesics are NSAIDS
ASA is asprin
max daily dose for ASA and acetaminophen 3g
major adverse effects of non narcotic analgesics GI Disturbance, Bleeding, constipation, hearing loss
labs for non narcotic analgesics Liver, CBC, platelets, PT
PCN Penicillin
Biggest concern with -cillins Super infection
labs for PCN CBC w/ or w/out diff, liver, renal, electrolytes
Sulfonamide (bactrim) education Empty stomach, increase fluid intake to 2500-300 ml/24hr
labs for sulfonamides liver func, UA, CBC
Big three w/ aminoglycosides(gentamicin) Ototoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Neurotoxicity
labs for aminoglycosides Liver func, renal func, CBC
fluoroquinolones (cipro) concerns photo sensitivity, increased coumadin effect
labs for fluoroquinolones (cipro) CBC, Liver func, Renal func
these drugs are frequently used in pts allergic to PCN cephlasporins
labs for cephlasporins Liver func, Renal func, PT, Ptt, cbc
Big effects of vancomycin ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, phlebitis, red mans syndrome
red mans syndrome occurs with vancomycin
vancomycin Labs peak and trough, Renal func, CBC W/ diff
when do you draw peak 5-10 min
when do you draw trough 30 mins before next dose
Do not touch this antianginal w/o gloves nitroglycerin
this type of angina occurs w/ stress, during excretion, and disappears w/ rest classic/stable
this type of angina may signal an impeding heart attack unstable/preinfarction
what do you document with anginal pain onset, type, radiation, location, duration
labs with anti anginal electrolytes, LIver func, Renal func, pulse ox, abg
Do not give digoxin when the heart rate is below 60 or above 120
this drug increases the contractillity of the heart digoxin
s/s of digoxin toxicity n/v, green and yellow halos
normal dig level 0.5 - 2
normal potassium level 3.5 - 5.0
labs for digoxin dig level, electrolytes, renal func
the antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate
the antidote for coumadin is vitamin K ( aqua myphyton), then whole blood or ffp
side effects of anti coagulents hemorrhage, petichiae, thrombocyclopenia
PTT normal value 30 - 45 secs
Pt normal value 11-13 secs
normal INR 0.9-1.2
therapeutic INR 2-3 times the norm
mechanical valve INR 2.5 - 3.5 times the norm
common anti platelet drugs ASA, plavix
labs for anti platelet CBC w/ diff (platelet count)
Lab for lovonox CBC w/ diff (platelet count)
the antidote for thrombolitic agents amicar
labs for thrombolytics platlets, INR, glucose, STEM, thrombin, fibrin
common potassium sparing antihypertensive aldactone
what is used to decrease potassium kexcelate
labs for antihypertensives electrolytes, cbc, glucose, renal func, cholesterol
things you monitor with diuretics BP, I & O, daily weight
these drugs end in -pril ace inhibitors
powerful vasoconstrictor, decreases bp ace inhibitor
these drugs end in -lol beta blockers
vasodilators and decreases contractility of the heart beta blockers
these drugs end in -pine calcium channel blockers
inhibits cardiac excitation by blocking transport of calcium to the heart calcium channel blockers
blocks vasoconstrictiont angiotensin II receptor blocker
these drugs end in -statin lipid lowering agents
labs for lipid lowering agents lipid panel, liver enzymes
rhabdomyolysis is common w/ statins
hot and dry sugar high
cold and clammy need some candy
labs for hypoglycemic agents BGM
s/s of hypoglycemia confusion, double and blurred vision, tachycardia,palpitation, diaphoresis, shakiness, sweating, hunger, H/A, tremors, weakness
poly's of hyperglycemia polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
labs for thyroid replacement drugs TSH, T3, T4, cbc, liver
labs for antacids magnesium, and calcium
these antiulcer drugs must be admin on empty stomach 30 mins before eating ppi
these antiulcer drugs reduce the secretion of gastric acid h2 antagonist
labs for antiulcer drugs electrolytes, urinary ph, calcium and phosphate
labs for neurologic agents liver, platlets, ecg, electrolytes, cbc, pancreatic enzymes
labs for respiratory agents pft, cbc, abg, complete metabolic planel
most common use is for allergies antihistamines
used to relive bronchospasms bronchodilators
Created by: 100001988568721