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Unit 20

Lab Assistant Skills (updated)

QuestionAnswer
The eyepiece and objectives on a microscope should be cleaned with lens paper after every use.
What concentrates the light on an oil-immersion objective of a microscope. Oil
What diaphragm controls the amount of light that enters a microscope. iris
Any medical laboratory or medical office that performs tests on human specimens is regulated by a federal amendment called the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA).
A culture specimen is obtained when a doctor wants to identify the causative agent of a disease.
A slide with a culture specimen is fixed so the organisms will not wash off when staining solutions are applied.
In some states, health science career students are not permitted to perform any procedure involving obtaining blood.
The first drop of blood obtained with a finger puncture is always removed and not used for a blood test.
Microhematocrit capillary tubes are lined with heparin to keep the blood from clotting.
Hemoglobin carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Blood is hemolyzed when it is clear or transparent.
The average value for hemoglobin in adult women is 12 to 16 grams of hemoglobin per 100 milliilters of blood
A blood smear is used to examine the form, structure, and relative number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in blood.
Abnormally shaped blood cells can indicate a disease.
Wright’s stain is used to fix a blood smear and to stain the cells so they are visible.
Because certain types of white blood cells increase after specific infections, a different count aids in making diagnoses.
A person’s blood type is determined by the presence of antigens on the red blood cells.
An Rh incompatibility occurs when a pregnant woman is Rh negative and the developing fetus is Rh positive.
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate measures the distance that red blood cells fall and settle in a specific period of time.
Insulin allows glucose to cross cell membranes so the glucose can be metabolized.
Some new glucose meters do not require the use of reagent strips.
Children can be taught to monitor their own blood sugar levels.
For the most accurate results, a urine specimen should be examined within one hour after it is collected.
Reagent strips can be used to determine both the presence of and the amount of substances in the urine.
To check urinary sediments, a fresh, first-voided, early-morning urine specimen is preferred.
Quality-control test chambers are used with most instruments, such as a photometer or hemoglobinometer, to make sure the instrument is calibrated correctly prior to using it for a blood test.
A piece of skin or body tissue can be used to check for blood type.
A faster than normal sedimentation rate signifies that inflammation and/or cell destruction has taken place.
A microscope that uses a dye stain to detect antibodies and specific organisms is a/an epifluorescence microscope
Which of the following is not a test waived by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)? differential count
The stain that removes the purple color of gentian violet from gram-negative organisms is ethyl alcohol or acetone-alcohol
While performing a Gram’s stain, the safranin solution is applied to the slide for approximately 30 to 60 seconds
An average value for a microhematocrit on a male adult is 40 to 55 percent
The blood cells with a normal count of 5,000 to 10,000 cells per cubic millimeter of blood are leukocytes
An increase in eosophinilscan indicate parasitic infection
If you use 6 drops of Wright’s stain for a blood smear film, how many drops of buffer solution should you use? 6 drops
To perform a quick stain, or three-step method, on a blood smear slide, do all of the following dip slide into fixative solution for about 1 second dip slide into two separate staining solutions for 1 second each repeat dipping procedure four to five times DO NOT gently rinse the slide with water and blot it dry
If a drop of blood reacts to anti-A serum, but does not react to anti-B serum, what type of blood is present? A
The following substances is frequently present in the urine of a person with diabetes mellitus? ketones or acetones
A reagent strip that checks for the presence of glucose is a Diastix
An ammonia odor in a urine specimen usually indicates old specimen
The test that measures the average blood sugar level for the previous two to three months is the glycohemoglobin test
The presence of pus in the urine is pyuria
Most states require that a blood and/or urine test is performed on all newborns to check for the presence of the amino acid or protein called phenylalanine
Blood test that measures the volume of packed red blood cells Hematocrit
Substance that prevents clotting of the blood Anticoagulant
Blood test that measures the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood Hemoglobin
Blood test that determines the number of red blood cells Erythrocyte count
Blood test that determines the percentage of each type of white blood cell Differential count
Destruction of red blood cells that releases hemoglobin into the solution that surrounds the cells Hemolysis
Blood test done prior to a transfusion of blood Typing and crossmatch
A culture specimen is placed on a slide Direct smear
Organisms on a culture plate avoid growing near an antibiotic disc Sensitive
Weight of a substance compared with the weight of distilled water Specific gravity
Less than normal amounts of urine Oliguria
A microscopic test done to examine the solid materials suspended in the urine Urinary sediments
Presence of blood in the urine Hematuria
A float with a calibrated stem used to measure specific gravity Urinometer
What is the total magnification of a microscope if the eyepiece is 20X and the objective is 40X? 800X
Specific standard precautions that must be observed while handling cultures. 1. wash hands frequently, 2. wear gloves, 3. wear lab coats or aprons, 4. wear a mask and protective eyewear if splashing can occur, 5. place all waste in an infectious waste bag, 6. clean any contaminated areas with a disinfectant solution
Major diseases that can be transmitted by blood. 1. hepatitis B (HBV), 2. hepatitis C (HBC), 3. acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Calculate the correct hematocrit reading if one tube reads 33 percent and a second tube reads 36 percent. 34.5 percent (33 + 36 = 99 ÷ 2 = 34.5)
If a drop of blood reacts to anti-Rh serum, but does not react to either anti-A or anti-B serum, what is the blood type? O+
Advantages to checking blood glucose levels instead of urine glucose levels. 1. increased accuracy over urine, 2. ability to detect both low and high glucose levels, 3. better regulation of insulin dosage, 4. flexibility with regard to time of the test, 5. improved control over diabetes
What is a normal level for fasting blood sugar? 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter of blood
what is examined during the following area of testing in a urinalysis? physical testing color, odor, transparency, specific gravity
what is examined during the following area of testing in a urinalysis? chemical testing pH, protein, glucose, ketone, bilirubin, urobilinogen, and blood
what is examined during the following area of testing in a urinalysis? microscopic testing formed elements in the urine such as cells, casts, crystals, and amorphous deposits
What is the normal range for specific gravity of urine? 1.005 to 1.030
A Unopette is a disposable, self-filling, blood-diluting pipette unit.
A low white blood cell count indicates leukopenia
Wintrobe or Westergren are two main methods used to perform this test Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine is called Urinalysis
Points that must be checked before performing a skin puncture to obtain blood no edema, no calluses, no scars, no rash, no sores, skin is warm to touch, skin is not cyanotic
When performing a skin puncture avoid using the thumb, index finger or pinkie finger
A sample of microorganisms or tissue cells taken from an area of the body for examination culture specimen
A special laboratory dish used to provide nourishment for growth of organisms agar plate
Test that test for antibodies in the blood prior to a transfusion antibody screen
Substance that causes the body to produce antibodies; may be introduced into the body or formed within the body antigen
Without urine; producing no urine anuria
Erythrocyte red blood cells (RBC)
Blood test that measures blood serum levels of glucose (sugar) after a person has had nothing by mouth for a period of time fasting blood sugar (FBS)
The most common type of sugar in the body glucose
A diagnostic test that evaluates how well a person metabolizes a calculated amount of glucose glucose tolerance test
A blood test that measures the amount of glucose that attaches to hemoglobin on red blood cells to determine the average blood-sugar levels for the previous 2 to 3 months glycohemoglobin test
Technique of staining organisms to identify specific types of bacteria present gram's stain
Blood test that measures the percentage of red blood cells per a given unit of blood hematocrit (Hct)
The iron-containing protein of the red blood cells; serves to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues hemoglobin (Hgb)
Presence of sugar in the blood hyperglycemia
Low blood sugar hypoglycemia
White blood cells are called leukocytes (WBC)
Instrument used to magnify or enlarge objects for viewing microscope
Special test strip containing chemical substances that react to the presence of certain substances in the urine or blood reagent strips
An instrument used to measure the specific gravity of urine refactometer
Organisms that remain unaffected by harmful substances in the environment resistant
Susceptible to a substance; organisms that are affected by an antibiotic in a culture and sensitivity study sensitivity
A small puncture made in the skin to obtain capillary blood is call a skin puncture
A determination of blood types and antigens prior to a blood transfusion typing and crossmatch
Examination of urine by way of physical, chemical, or microscopic testing urinalysis
Solid materials suspended in urine urinary sediments
Calibrated device used to measure the specific gravity of urine urinometer
Inserting a needle into a vein is called a venipuncture
Created by: votec