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6 Science Chapter 5

visible spectrum the color sequence (red,orange, yellow, green, blue and violet) that appears when white lights is passed through a prism
magnetic field a region in which certain objects are attracted or repelled by the magnet
electric field a region in which certain objects may be attracted or repelled by an electric force
wave a movement of energy from one place to another
oscillation a back and forth motion that repeatedly follows the same path
crest the high point of a wave
trough the lowpoint of a wave
medium the term for whatever carries a wave
electromagnetic wave a wave consisting of an electric field and a magnetic field vibrating at right angles to each other
speed of light the speed at which electromagnetic waves travel (in a vacuum), epual to 186,000 miles per second
frequency how fast a wave oscillates
wavelength the length of one complete wave or cycle of oscillation (measured from crest to crest or trough to trough)
electromagnetic spectrum an arrangement of electromagnetic waves according to frequency and wavelength
pulsars stars that produce rapid bursts of radio waves
astronaut a person who jouneys into space
satellite any object that orbits a larger object
space station a structure in space in which people can live and work for weeks or months at a time
geostationary orbit an orbit in which a satellite follows the direction of the earth's rotation in such a way that it stays in the same location in the sky
polar orbit an orbit in which a satellite travels perpendicular to the equator, passing over the polar regions as it circles the earth
Global Positioning System (GPS) the most famous network of navigational satellites
space probe an unmanned spacecraft that is launched specifically to explore the unknown
Sir Isaac Newton discovered that light is a combinttion of many colors; discovered laws of motion
James Clark Maxwell discovered electromagnetic waves; realized that light is a type of electromagnetic wave
Galileo the first astronomer to make extensive use of a telescope in his study of the heavens; made many important discoveries
Robert H. Goddard called the "Father of Modern Rocketry"; built and launched the first liquid-fueled rocket
Wernher von Braun helped make the United States the world leader in space exploration; developed the rocket used to carry men to the moon
Yuri Gagarin the first person to travel in space
Alan Shephard the first American to travel in space
John Glenn the first American to orbit the earth
Valentina Tereshkova the first woman to fly in space
Neil Armstrong the first human being to set foot on the surface of the moon
William and Caroline Herschel discovered the planet Uranus
telescope a device that makes distant objects appear cleared or closer
reflection the turning back or turning aside of any wave when it hits an obstacle
refraction the bending of any wave's direction at the boundary between two wave media
refraction telescope a type of telescope that uses lenses to gather light and form an object
reflecting telescope a type of telescope that uses mirrors to produce an image
Hubble space telescope a reflecting telescope with an 8-foot-wide main mirror launched into orbit arounf the earth in 1990
spectroscope a special device that can split light into a spectrum for analysis
radio telescope an instrument that collects radio waves from space
Communications satellite relay siganls to other satellites; provide direct phone, Internet, and e-mail service anywhere on eath; relay telephone conversations and TV broadcasts
weather satellite provide photographs of cloud patterns; measure cloud and ground temperatures; measure cloud heights, wind speeds and relative humidity
navigational satellites GPS allows boaters, pilots, and hikers to pinpoint their position; GPS are so so small they can be placed in a cell phone or wrist watch
earth observation satellite make maps; survey cities; spot forest fires; plot the terrain of the ocean floor; help discover deposits of coal, oil, or valuable ores
military satellites scan the earth for missile launches or large explosions; photograph foreign military installations; monitor the movements of enemy ships, planes, and tanks
astronomical satellites Hubble space telescope; detect x-rays; measure distances to nearby stars; study the sun
Mercury the closest planet to the sun; the speediest planet
Venus sometimes called the morning star or evening planet; hottest planet in our solar system
Mars often called the red planet; has two moons (Phobos and Deimos)
Jupiter largest planet in our solar system; has a huge strorm known as the Great Red Spot
Saturn has the most glorious rings of any planet in our solar system
Uranus discovered by William and Caroline Herschel; entire system is turned on its side
Neptune beautiful royal blue color; largest moon is named Triton; has the strongest winds measured anywhere in the solar system
Ganymede largest moon in the solar system (bigger that Mercury); largest moon of Jupiter
Titan largest moon of Saturn; has its own atmosphere
Created by: Mrs_CC