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Soil and Weathering

Define Weathering The breaking down of rocks on earths surface or beneath it.
Define Erosion The broken down movement of rock by wind,water,or ice.
What is mechanical weathering ? The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces doesn't change its composition
What are the types of mechanical weathering? Heating and cooling, freezing and thawing, plant growth,animal actions, and abrasion.
What are the types of chemical weathering ? Water, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, living organisms, and acid rain.
Define Permable Full of tiny connected air spaces and will allow water to seep through it.
Define ice wedging When wedges of ice in rocks widen and deepen cracks.
What is chemical weathering? The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes and changes its composition.
What are the most important factors that determine the rate at weathering occurs by? Type of rock and climate.
Define soil The loose weathered material on earth's surface in which plants can grow.
How does soil form (simple)? It forms as rock is broken down by weathering and mixes with other materials on the surface.
What are the layers of soil (in order)? Litter, Horizon A (Topsoil), Horizon B (Subsoil), Horizon C, Bedrock ,
Describe horizon A Dark brown lots of humus and nutrients, very rich
Describe horizon B Reddish Brown Soil, mostly clay, little humus and nutrients
Describe horizon C Contains partially weathered rock light brown
Describe Bedrock Not weathered rock
What is humus? The broken down litter and dead organisms that brings nutrients to soil
What do organisms do for soil? Mix the soil and make space in it for water and air or make humus.
What do decomposers do? Break down waste and digest them with chemicals.
What was the dust bowl? The drought in the great planes that lasted from about 1932-1938. The farmers there dug up all the plants holding the soil and because of the drought it got loose. When winds came the soil would lift up into the air and become dust.
What is soil conservation? The management of soil to prevent its destruction.
What are 2 ways soil conservation can be done. Counter Plowing(the practice of plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent it from being washed away in the rain) Conservation Plowing(disturbs soil and its plant cover as little as possible by keeping old plants in so the soil)
Created by: 16eferro