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Micro Unit 1 of 14

Microbiology Study Guide for the CLEP Exam (Introduction)

What types of organisms are included in the study of microbiology? Prions, Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, and Parasites
What other areas, besides pathogenisis are included in the study of microbiology? Food production, biotechnology, and genetic engineering
food production the use and study of microbes in the production of cheese, ETOH, and breads.
biotechnology uses microbes for beneficial processes such as the degradation of toxic materials and the production of antibiotics, vitamins, and food supplements.
genetic engineering uses microbes to produce substances like human insulin or to isolate/replace defective genes
Where do we find microorganisms? everywhere except those rendered sterile by special means (i.e. autoclave)
What is a parasite? A pasrasite lives in or on another organism and causes damage to that organism
Define "host" the host is the organism on which the parasite lives
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope in the 1670s and was the first to view "animalcules" or microbes
Edward Jenner In the 1790s he recognized that vaccines could protect people from viral diseases. He also made the first vaccine which was eventually used to eradicate smallpox
Ignaz Semmelweis By the 1850s he was promoting the washing of hands to disenfect them and prevent the spread of disease.
Louis Pasteur From the 1850s to the 1880s he convinced the scientific community that the theory of spontaneous generation was false and that illnesses were caused by microbes. Also developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies. He is known as the father of microbiology
Microbes are generally organized into seven taxa. Name them. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (Kings Play Chess On Fancy Glass Stools)
Of the seven taxa which are generally given to identify a microbe? Genus and Species
What are organisms called when they have small differences but are still in the same genus and species? Biovars and Serovars (Biovars are biologically different, Serovars differ immunologically)
List the 2 domains of bacteria? Archaea and Bacteria (Archaea comes from the latin for "old" but Archaea are thought to have evolved AFTER bacteria)
List the two fundamentally different types of cells. Why are they different? The 2 types of cells are Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archea) have no nucleus. Eukaryotes have a true nucleus (Eukarya)
What is the purpose of a differential stain? It adds two or more stains to bacterial specimens causing different types of bacteria to change into different colors allowing bacteria to be recognized seperately.
What is the total magnification of a 100x oil immersion objective (lens) and 10x ocular lens? 1000x (100x times 10x= 1000x)
List an advantage of electron microscopy over light microscopy Viruses are too small (0.03 - 0.3 microns) to be seen by light microscpy. Electron microscopes can resolve down to about 0.002 microns to reveal fine surface structural details of even the smallest microbes.
What does it mean that a water molecule is polar? A water molecule is polar because there is some positive charge at one end of the molecule and some negative charge at the other
What is a pH? pH is a measurement of the acid or alkaline properties of a molecule
What do high and low pH mean? High pHs (above 8) are basic and low pHs are acidic.
What pH is neutral? The neutral point is pH 7
What general function to enzymes accomplish? Enzymes cause the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that are combined by other enzymes into the complex materials by the cell. Enzymes also derive energy from chemicals for use by the growing cell.
What are the workers of a cell? Enzymes, which are polymers of amino acids
Would an organism that contains one million base pairs of DNA be more likely to have one thousand or ten thousand genes? The organism would be more likely to have one thousand genes, because an average gene is about one thousand base pairs in length
How many bases of RNA are required to code for one amino acid? Three RNA bases are required for one amino acid
How do DNA and RNA differ? DNA is double stranded, has the sugar deoxyribose, and the nucleotide T(thymidine); RNA is single stranded, has ribose, and has U(uridine) in place of T
If a bacterial cell has 35 percent guanine, how much cytosine would it have? How much adenine? Why is this so? The cell has 35 percent cystosine because C always equals G in DNA. It has 15 percent adenine because the remaining 30 percent of nucleotides must have equal amounts of A and T
Created by: DevilDoc