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biology midterm

DNA, genetics, and mieosis v. mitosis, biotech

a diploid cell that has 24 chromosomes per set undergoes meiosis. after meiosis, how many chromosomes does the cell contain? 6
on the poles of the DNA ladder, there is a ___ bond between each sugar and phosphate phosphodiester
DNA replication takes place in the ____ nucleus
transcription takes place in the _____ nucleus
translation takes place in the _____ on a _____ cytoplasm; ribosome
the central dogma states that: DNA undergoes ______ to make _____ and this undergoes _____ to make _____ transcription;mRNA;translation;protein
before transcription can begin, trancription factors must bind to what? TATA box
a cross between a black cat and a white cat results in offspring that are silver. what pattern of inheritence is this? incomplete dominence
a pink monkey mates with a black monkey. this results in a monkey with pink and black stripes .what pattern of inheritence is this? codominence
father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
what are the 7 main traits of the pea plant? seed form, seed color, pod color, pod form, flower position, seed coat color, stem length
what is the law of independent assortment? alleles for different traits segragate independently of one another
non-sex chromosomes are called? autosomes
traits on the x chromosome are most likely to show in which gender and why? in males because males have nothing to cover the allele up and females do.
human diploid? 46
human haploid?and how did we get this number? 23, because it is 1/2 of the diploid number
karyotype? picture of chromosomes seperated by size.
step 1 in DNA replication DNA-->DNA 5' leading strand 3' lagging strand start with one double helix
step 2 in DNA replication DNA helicase comes and splits the hydrogen bonds between the 2 base pairs so now there is 2 seprate strands of DNA
step 3 in DNA replication now DNA polymerase comes and finds the match to make each identical base pair
step 4 in DNA replication once you have each base pair you can make the backbone
step 5 in DNA replication now DNA ligase comes and rebounds each of the base pairs to make 2 identical semi-conservative double helixes
step 1 in transcription DNA--->RNA the promoter comes and sits on the TATA box
step 2 in transcription tRNA trancribes the genetic code into subunits simply changes all the T's to U's and changes also to a single strand of RNA and only uses the 1st one.
step 1 in translation RNA---> proteins one strand comes out of the nucleus
step 2 of translation cant tell which side is the head and which side is the tail so it adds a 5' cap so u know that's the head and a poly-A tail with 25-50 adenines in one tail.
step 3 in translation before, when there is nothing happening they are unbonded and the small subunit sits on RNA strand
step 4 of translation then once the 1st is translated, the large subunit comes and binds to the small subunit
step 5 of translation one it reaches the stop codon it detaches the protein and it has made a protein
what are gametes and how are they created? a gamete is a sex cell and is made during fertilization
what types of cells does meiosis create and how are they different from those created by mitosis? creates gametes and meiosis has 2 phases while mitosis only has 1.
explain crossing over and when does it occur? occurs when 2 chromosomes exchange genetic material during meiosis
explain non-disjunction. when does it occur? and what does it create? non-disjunction is the adding or subtracting of an entire chromosome. it occurs in meiosis specifically in anaphse.
who discovered the structure of DNA Watson and Crick
what is the structure of the DNA molecule called? what makes up the sides and steps of it? the structure is a double-helix. the sides (backbone) are made of sugar and phosphate. the steps are made of nucleotides called: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine
what are nucleotides and what are the 3 parts? A,T,C,G. 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
what is a codon? a triplet of nucleotides
list 2 ways DNA and RNA are different (1)DNA has Thymine and RNA has instead of Thymine it has Uracil(2)DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded
define gene a gene is what determines your physical traits.
what is the function of mRNA? tRNA? mRNA carry the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome tRNA transfers specific amino acids to the polypeptide chain during translation
where is the DNA located in an eukaryotic cell nucleus
what is genetics? study of heredity
who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel
genotype? allele combinations
phenotype? physical characteristics
what is an allele? one of several alternate forms of the same gene
why are punnett squares useful (what do they tell us) they are used to predict different allele combinations of offspring between two individuals
what is incomplete dominance? when a trait is not dominant over another and the colors blend
what is co-dominance? when a trait is not dominant over another and both color show on the offspring.
what are multiple alleles? sets of 2 or more genes.
what are sex-linked traits? traits inherited on the sex chromosomes
list the human blood types and all the possible genotypes for each blood type. type A-IAIA, IAi type B-IBIB, IBi type AB- IAIB type O- ii
on which chromosome are most sex-linked traits found? X-chromosome
what is a carrier? a person who carries the disease but does not have it and is heterogeneous for the disease that is recessive
what are gametes? where do they go on a punnett square? sex cells. go inside the boxes of a punnett square
what is a karyotype and how is it useful? picture with number of chromosomes of one's cells and is used to see birth abnormalities and deaths in infants
what is a pedigree and how is it useful is a family tree that tracks members with a certain trait and is used to see if you are at risk of inheriting a particular genetic disorder
mendal's law(segregation) allele pair must segregatr during gamete formation
explain the role of meiosis in allowing for genetic variation. the chromosome pairs crossover and switch pieces which is recombination and causes diversity
what is "crossing over"? exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes and happens during meiosis
what is nondisjunction failure to separate when they should into daughter cells in division and can cause a genetic disorder
meiosis phases interphase 1, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telephase 1, cytokinesis 1, interphase 2, prophase 2, meaphase 2, anaphase 2, telephase 2, cytokinesis 2
what are homologous chromosomes? identical chromosomes that pair up during meiosis
gametes in males and woman haploid 23 diploid 46 males have sperm and females have egg with 3 polor bodies
diploid v. haploid di-2 hap-1
somatic v. gametes somatic/body cells- mitosis gametes/sex cells- meiosis
chromatid v. chromosome v. centromere 2 strands of chromatid make a chromosome and the centromere is where the chromatid are held together
roles of centriole and spindle fibers centrioles- are the parts of the cell that go to the end of the cell during prophase and form spindle fiber- are the fibers that attach to the chromosomes and pull them apart
term for gamete process fertilization
what are the advantages of asexual and sexual reproduction asexual- effective at cloning sexual- uses 2 sources of information instead of 1 creating greater genetic diversity
which nitrogen bases belong to DNA and RNA DNA:A,T,C,G RNA:A,U,C,G
whats the structure of DNA and which scientists are credited for the discovery double-helix. Watson and Crick (but Rosalind Franklin is the one that really discovered it)
what types of bond holds the nitrogen bases together?the backbone? NB: hydrogen bonds Backbone: phosphodiester
what are nucleotides? consist of nitrogenous base, a sugar, and phosphate group
what are amino acids? basic ingrediant needed to make a protein
what is a codon? a sequence of 3 adjacent nucleotides
what is a peptide bond? bonds of preoteins
what is an anticodon? 3 adjacent nucleotides in tRNA thst bind to corresponding mRNA
what is mRNA? carries information encoded in DNA out of nucleus to ribosome
what is tRNA? transfers amino acids to the polypeptide chain on the ribosome
what is a mutation? change in the cell's DNA
what could a mutation be caused by? most are caused by an error in the duplication process
what are some types? insertion, deletion, trans location, point, and frame-shift
some examples about how DNA technology can be used to aid in forensics, medicine, and agriculture. some vaccines, all gene therapy drugs, in forensics for DNA fingerprinting, and in agriculture for selective breeding
what are restriction enzymes? proteins that cut DNA at specific sequences
what is gel electrophoresis? technique used in which molecules are forced across a gel by an electrical current
what is PCR? polymerase chain reaction
recombinant DNA a genome that carries a portion of DNA from another
what is a GMO? organisms where genes from one organism are moved into the genome from another organism using restriction enzymes
explain the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes a chromosome is a strand of DNA containing the genes
what is an allele? a pair of different forms of 1 gene
what is genotype? combinations of alleles to get traits
what is phenotype? physical traits
what does it mean to be heterozygous? when there is 2 different alleles for the same trait
what does it mean to be homozygous? same alleles for that 1 trait
what does it mean to be recessive? alleles represented with lower case letters
what does it mean to be dominant? alleles represented with upper case letters
what is the law of dominance? if you have a pair of genes and you have to give one to offspring it will most likely be the dominant allele
what is the law of segregation? during production of gametes,alleles segregate to get one from each parent
what is the law of independent assortment when 2 or more characteristics are inherited, heredity facors must segregate
Created by: madison_98



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