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Med Surg Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
Ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and severe diarrhea can cause which pH imbalance? Metabolic Acidosis
the heavy deep breathing used to treat metabolic acidosis is called what? Kussmaul's Respirations
Anesthesia, respiratory depression, drug over dose, and COPD can cause which pH imbalance? Respiratory acidosis
hypoventilations, SOB, muscle weakness, and disorientation are manifested by which acid-base imbalance? Respiratory acidosis
Severe vomiting and GI suctioning can cause which pH imbalance? Metabolic alkalosis
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypoventilation, and restlessness followed by lethargy are manifested by which pH imbalance metabolic alkalosis
hyperventilation and anxiety can cause which pH imbalance respiratory alkalosis
seizures, tachycardia, hypokalemia, and hyperventilation are manifested by which pH imbalance respiratory alkalosis
Normal CO2 35-45
Normal HCO3 22-26
Normal blood pH 7.35-7.45
partial blood flow is blocked through the arteries causes insufficient blood supply to the myocardium - name that disease Ischemia (CAD)
complete blockage of blood flow through the arteries leading to cardiac cell death Infarction (CAD)
Progressive blockage of the cardiac arteries characterized by plaque build up atherosclerosis (CAD)
Types of angina Stable: predictable times Variable: unpredictable times Unstable: unpredictable, worsening each time
Medications used to treat angina nitrates
Manifestations of MI SOB, tachycardia, hypotension to hypertension, sweating, anxiety, angina
describe MONA and what it's used for Morphine, Oxygen, Nitro, and Aspirin Used on patients with MI
Plavix, Trental, and Persantine class and use antiplatelet peripheral vascular disease
Coumadin, Lovenox, and Heparin class and uses anticoagulant DVT
three factors affecting DVT development blood stasis, vessel damage, increased coagulation factors
manifestations of DVT edema, tenderness, redness, warmth, and tightness
Toponin diagnostic use diagnoses MI within 2 hrs of MI enzyme specific to cardiac muscle
intermittent claudication, burning pain at rest, shiny hairless skin, and thick nails are manifestations of what disease? peripheral vascular disease
disease causing inflammation of the lung tissue and alveoli which then causes fluid and debris build up and interrupts gas exchange pneumonia
non-infectious pneumonia is generally caused by what aspiration of gastric content
A patient with pneumonia would be put on these medication classes antibiotics, bronchodilators, expectorant cough syrup
COPD characterized by inflammation and damage to the alveoli inhibiting gas exchange emphysema
COPD characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes inhibiting air flow in and out of the lungs bronchitis
mild cough, scant clear sputum, flushed face, with diminished lung sounds indicated which type of COPD emphysema
persistent cough, copious amounts of thick sputum, cyanotic face and lips, with wheezing and rhonchi indicate which type of COPD bronchitis
pursed lip breathing, barrel chest, clubbed fingers, and fatigue characterize which disease COPD
a patient being tested for COPD will likely have these diagnostic tests pulmonary function test and serum anti-trypsin levels
a patient with COPD will be treated with these drug classes bronchodilator, corticosteroid, and oxygen
airways narrowing in response to a stimuli which decreases air flow asthma
a breathing conditions manifested with anxiety, tachycardia, tachypnea, wheezing, and chest tightness asthma
when treating a patient with asthma having an asthma episode use these medications in this order bronchodilators then inhaled corticosteroids
when a thrombus breaks free and blocks blood flow to the lungs it is called a pulmonary emboli
a breathing condition manifested by anxiety, tachycardia, tachypnea, bloody sputum, blood pressure changes, low grade fever, crackles, and chest pain pulmonary emboli
a patient being testing for a pulmonary emboli will likely have this diagnostic test done Plasma D-dimer detects thrombus formation
surgical options for a patient with a pulmonary emboli include vena cava filter and embolectomy
medications used to treat pulmonary embolism include anticoagulants and Fibrinolytic
streptokinase and urokinase class and use Fibrinolytic pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism risk factors include immobility, oral contraceptives, and child birth
an infection characterized by dysuria, increase in frequency, increased urgency, foul-smelling urine, blood tinged urine, or supra pubic pain uti or cystitis
Ciprofloxacin class and use antibiotic short course uti treatment
Pyridium class and use urinary analgesic uti treatemt stains secretions orange
Macrobid class and use anti-infective prevention of uti in high risk clients
define pyelonephritis kidney infection
define urosepsis blood infection spread from the urinary tract
manifestations of pyelonephritis dysuria, frequency, urgency, cloudy urine, flank pain, low grade fever
a patient with pyelonephritis would be put on these drug classes for treatment antibiotic (cipro) and urinary analgesic (pyridium)
define Urolithiasis urinary tract stones
severe flank pain, sweating, pallor, frequency, urgency, dysuria, hematuria, and renal colic are manifestations of urinary tract stones
a patient with a Uretolithiasis may be put in these med classes opioid analgesic and spasmolytic
a patient with nephrolithiasis that are too large to pass may be treated with lithotripsy
a patient comes into his doctor complaining of hesitancy urinating, post-void drip, feeling incomplete urination, and increase in urgency, frequency and nocturia. what might his diagnoses be benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BPH)
A patient suspected of BPH may undergo these diagnostic procedures digital rectal exam, bladder palpation, and PSA to rule out cancer
A patient with BPH may be put on one of these three medications Proscar, Hytrin, or Flomax
this type of cancer is the slowest progressing and has a predictable course. It may cause difficulty urinating and hematuria. Prostate cancer
A patient with suspected prostate cancer might have these diagnostic tests done digital rectal exam, PSA test, ultrasound, and biopsy
usually affects bone shaft, characterized by greater bone diameter with decrease in bone density and increased risk of fractures osteoporosis
DEXA diagnostic use bone density scan osteoporosis
an older woman presents to her doctor with a fractured wrist, she also has kyphosis, loss of height by 1 inch and lower back pain. What diagnoses might be suspected osteoporosis
A patient with osteoporosis may be taking one of these medications Fosamax, Boniva, evista, or miacalcin
describe osteomyelitis infection of the bone tissue causing inflammation and thrombus formation
drainage and ulceration at the site, high fever, abrupt onset of pain, redness, swelling, and tachycardia are all manifestations of which bone condition osteomyelitis
A fat embolism released by a broken bone may cause manifestations like Petechial rash, confusion and respiratory failure
patient presents to the ER with severe pain, you also notice the left leg is externally rotated and appears shorter than the right leg. you suspect hip fracture
describe bucks traction and its use use weights on the leg to prevent muscle spasms hip fractures
Complications associated with amputations include contractures, phantom pain, slow healing, and infection
Post-amputation care elevate for first 24 hr after 24 h: flat/prone positioning to prevent contractures
autoimmune disease involving joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth. Includes inflammatory response, is bilateral and systemic RA
loss of cartilage resulting in decreased ability of joints to absorb energy and bone-on-bone rubbing at the joints. Non-inflammatory and not systemic osteoarthritis
arthritis associated with stiff joints, crepitus noises and pain relieved by rest osteoarthritis
arthritis that may cause anemia, fatigue, weight loss and joint deformity RA
a patient with suspected RA may undergo these tests ESR (checks for inflammation) and RF
A patient with osteoarthritis may be taking these medications analgesics (motrin, aleve, Tylenol, aspirin), salicylate cream, capsaicin cream, or synvisc injections
a patient with RA may be treated with some of these meds NSAIDs (aspirin, voltaren, aleve), corticosteroids (Prednisone), or disease modifying agents (Plaquenil, Methotrexate)
disease symptomatic of RA with a characteristic butterfly mark on the face and sensitivity to the sun Lupus
a patient with gout may be taking some of these medications analgesics, colchicine, corticosteroids, allopurinol, or probenecid
a patient with suspected GERD may undergo one of these diagnostic tests barium swallow test or upper endoscopy
describe GERD inappropriate relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter
PPI meds (-zoles) prevacid, protonix, nexium, Prilosec
H-2 receptor blocks Tagamet, zantac, pepcid
antacids Maalox, Mylanta, gaviscon, tums
anti-ulcer agents Carafate give on empty stomach
promotility agents Reglan
describe gastritis disruption in mucosal lining exposes tissues to gastric fluid and causes inflammation
describe hiatal hernia part of the stomach slides or rolls through the diaphragm causes esophageal irritation, indigestion, and aspiration risk
A patient presents to the doctors with gnawing pain that is relieved by eating, you suspect this peptic ulcer disease
complications of peptic ulcer disease include hemorrhage, perforation, and obstruction
Peptic ulcers, gastritis, and hiatal hernias may be caused from a bacterial infection of H Pylori
a patient presents to the ER with a rigid, board-like abdomen, rebound tenderness, a high fever, absent bowel sounds and the hiccups, you may suspect peritonitis r/t perforation
what kind of line can TPN be used through central line only
how often does a TPN bag and tubing need to be changed every 24 hours
why is these a high risk for infection with TPN TPN has a high glucose concentration
what kind of line can PPN be used through peripheral or central line
describe mechanical and functional intestinal obstructions mechanical: impactions and obstructions functional: due to paralysis or anesthesia
interventions for a bowel obstruction NG suctioning, bowel rest, pain management
a patient presents to the ER with rebound tenderness, vague upper abdomen pain, jaundice, itching, and changes in stool. you may suspect Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gall bladder)
a patient with a biliary disorder can expect to have this diagnostic test performed HIDA scan (gall bladder scan)
treatment options for a patient with colorectal cancer include resectioning, chemotherapy, and radiation
describe Hernia defect in the abdominal wall that allows contents to protrude out of the abdominal cavity
manifestations and complications of hernias pain with coughing perforation, obstruction, incarceration
A patient presents to the ER with a distended abdomen, left sided pain, low grade fever, and palpable masses in the abdomen. This patient has recently consumed a bag of sun flower seeds. You suspect Diverticulitis
Created by: jperrault9941