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Biomed II Exam 3

Metabolism and Nutrition

what is oxidized? chemical reaction causes a loss of electrons from an atom
what is reduced? chemical reaction gain electrons from an atom
what is glycogenolysis? the hydrolysis of glycogen into glucose monomers
what is glycolysis the oxidation of glucose into three carbon pyruvate molecules to generate ATP and NADH
what is pyruvate dehydrogenation? formation of acetyl CoA oxidation of 3 carbon pyruvate into 2 carbon acetyl CoA to produce NADH and CO2
what is the definition of the kreb's cycle? conversion of acetyl carbons on acetyl CoA to CO2 to produce NADH and FADH2 and ATP
what is the definition of the electron transport chain the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 to produce a proton gradient that is harnessed to produced ATP
what is gluconeogenesis? the formation of glucose from breakdown products of lipids and amino acids
what is glycerol from lipids converted to in gluconeogenesis? glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
what is amino acid and lactic acid carbons converted into in gluconeogenesis? pyruvate
what is the pentose phosphate pathway? diversion of glucose 6 phosphate to make ribose 5-phosphate for building RNA and DNA and NADPH for reducing power in biosynthesis
what is glycogenesis? the process of linking together glucose monomers into glycogen for storage in muscle and liver
what is the IN of glycolysis? 1 glucose 2 ATP
what is the OUT of glycolysis? 2 pyruvate 4ATP 2NADH
what is the NET GAIN of glycolysis? 2 pyruvate 2 ATP 2 NADH
where does glycolysis happen? happens in the cytosol
what happens to pyruvate? pyruvate is shuttled into the inner mitochondria and oxidized to acetyl group bound to Coenzyme A
what is the IN of pyruvate to acetylCoA 2 pyruvate
what is the OUT of pyruvate to acetyl CoA 2 NADH 2CO2
what is the NET GAIN of pyruvate to acetyl CoA 2 NADH
what happens during the Kreb's cycle? CoA hands its 2 C acetyl group to oxaloacetate to make citrate electrons are handed off to reduce NAD to NADH and FADH2 fully oxidized carbons are ejected at CO2 4 carbon oxaloaxetate is regenerated
how many rounds per glucose is the kreb's cycle? two
which is lower energy, FADH or NADH? FADH2 electrons are lower energy than NADH electrons
what is the IN of kreb's cycle 2 acetyl CoA
what is the OUT of the kreb's cycle 4 CO2 6NADH 2FADH2 2ATP
what is the NET of the Krebs cycle 6 NADH 2FADH2 2ATP
what happens during the electron transport chain NADH binds to the first enzyme complex and is oxidized back to NAD electrons are transferred to pump protons out to form a gradient FADH2 binds to the second complex, last reaction is the reduction of 02 to H20
what is the ATP synthase complex do in electron transport chain protons are allowed back through ATP synthase complex which uses the energy to drive ADP phosphoylation to ATP
what is the ultimate end point of electron transport chain? 02 and H20
what is the IN of the electron transport chain 1 NADH 1 FADH2
what is the OUT of the electron transport chain 2.5 per NADH 1.5 per FADH2
what is the final fate of carbons from glucose exhaled as CO2
what is the final fate of the electrons from metabolism water
what is the regulator for glycolysis phosphofructokinase catalyzes the committed step for entry into glycolysis
what is phosphofructokinase stimulated by AMP
what is phosphofructokinase inhibited by ATP, citrate, and fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
what is the regulator for pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyzes the committed step fro pyruvate entry into non glucose metabolism since acetyl CoA cannot be used to make glucose in mammals
what is pyruvate dehydogenase inhibited by? acetyl CoA and NADH
what is the regulator for krebs cycle? reacts that control into the cycle and the first redox reaction
what is the krebs cycle stimulated by ADP
what is Krebs cycle inhibited by ATP, NADH, and succinyl CoA
phosphorylase B inactive form, with out it's phosphate
glycogen synthase A active form, when it is not phosphorlated or without it's phosphate pops glucose off,
glycogen synthase B inactive form, when it is phosphoralated, with it's phosphate
phosphorylase A active form, with its phosphate
when you need to make glycogen what happens to kinase your glycogen synthase is working (glycogen synthase A) your phosphorylase B is inactive
when you need to mobilize your glycogen stores what is happening to kinase your glycogen synthase B, not working your phosphorlyase A is working
where does the body get other parts for glucose using gluconeogenesis proteins and glycerol part of triglycerides
what are the three irreversible steps in glycolysis that gluconeogenesis must get around hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase
what are the two kinds of lipids? long chain fatty acids cholesterol
what are triacylglycerols made of? three fatty acids chains linked to glycerol
what does pancreatic lipase do? hydrolyze the ester linkages to release the fatty acids for degradation and energy production
what happens in lipolysis? fatty acids are attached to Coenzyme A and then broken down two carbons at a time to produce acetyl CoA (beta oxidation) each round produces NADH and FADH2 acetyl CoA enter the krebs cycle, glycerol enters glycolysis
what is beta oxidation? fatty acids are attached to Coenzyme A and then broken down two carbons at a time to produce acetyl CoA beta carbon is the one that gets oxidized
what happens in lipogenesis? acetyl CoA are reduced into chains NADPH are used for the reduction
what is NADPH used for in lipids? lipogenesis
what is the major storage of energy in the body? triacylglycerols fats are more reduced = more electronic energy fats are hydrophobic so they are more concentrated
what are for long term energy needs? triacylglycerols
what are for short term energy needs? carbs
what are ketone bodies soluble bodies of acetyl CoA exported into the bloodstream during fasting
what can be used by brain and the heart when you are fasting ketone bodies, soluble forms of acetylCoA
what is ketosis or ketoacidosis? starvation, lack of glucose stimulates lipolysis and ketone body formation by the liver, concentration of ketone bodies in the blood goes up lowers blood pH
when is an example of ketoacidosis? diabetes mellitus causes increased ketone bodies because there is a lack of insulin insulin stimulates lipolysis
what are the two forms of cholesterol in the body? dietary endogenously synthesized
what is cholesterol synthesized from in the body? acetyl CoA major sites being the liver and intestine
what is the committed step in cholesterol metabolism? HMG CoA reductase
where are all steroid hormones derived from? cholesterol
how is vitamin D produced? produced in the skin from a cholesterol by the action of UV lights also can be provided in the diet
what are lipoproteins? lipid carriers in the blood lipids are insoluble in water so they must be carried int eh blood by protein complexes
what is a chylomicron? carry the TAG and cholesterol ingested from the diet
what are VLDLs? very low density lipoproteins carry endogenously made TAG (liver makes these)
what are LDLs? low density lipoproteins carry endogenously made cholesterol
what are HDLs? high density lipoproteins scavenge cholesterol released from dead cell membranes and returns it to the liver
how do lipoproteins bring their lipids to target cells? binding specific lipoproteins receptors on the cells
where are most TAG made? liver, adipose is where it is stored
what is the good cholesterol? HDL, scavengers
what is familial hypercholesterolemia? person has a deficient LDL receptor gene LDLs build up in the blood and cause atherosclerotic plaque Liver keeps making cholesterol because it can't sense them plaque aggregates
proteins in the diet are digested by... proteases and peptidases in the intestine into small peptides of constituent amino acids nitrogen is removed as ammonia and converted to urea
what happens to the carbon backbones of amino acids enter the krebs cycle or become acetylCoA
what is the fate of glycogenic amino acids? converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis
what is the fate of ketogenic amino acids? fat/ketone bodies by lipogenesis
ketogenic amino acids cannot be used to make... glucose because of net carbon loss in the Krebs cycle from that point
glutogenic amino acids get converted into Kreb cycle intermediates past the 2 carbon loss can be made into glucose
what is phenyalanine hydroxtlase? first step that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine which then goes into acetyl CoA
what is deficiency of enzyme PKU? causes toxic build up of phenylalanine breakdown products in the blood
amino acids from proteins your body makes can come from which two sources? ingested protein, recycled bodily protein cannot come from fat- ketogenic
what is the brain profile for metabolism major fuel is glucose, does not have glucose 6 phosphate so cannot export glucose and has no fuel storage of its own can adapt ketone bodies during starvation
what is the skeletal muscle profile for metabolism uses glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies for fuel does not have glucose 6 phosphate so cannot export glucose fats major fuel for resting muscle, glucose for strenuous activity
what is the liver profile for metabolism? major fuel is from alpha leto acids from amino acid degradation, NOT GLUCOSE or FATTY ACIDS has glucose 6 phosphate so can export glucose absorbs most of the glucose and protein in blood from meal synthesizes TAG, ketone bodies and cholesterol
what is the adipose tissue profile for metabolism? major storage site for dietary and liver made TAG fuel is oxidative respiration
what does the hormone insulin do in metabolism signals the fed or absorptive state produced by pancreatic beta cells
what does insulin stimulate glycogen synthesis in muscle and liver glycolysis in liver to increase fatty acid synthesis glucose uptake in adipose for TAG synthesis
what does insulin inhibit gluconeogensis in the liver
what does the hormone glucagon do in metabolism? signals the starved state produced by pancreatic alpha cells main organ target is the liver
what does glucagon stimulate glucogenolysis in liver to raise blood glucose gluconeogenesis to export to blood
what does glucagon inhibit fatty acid synthesis by inhibiting glycolysis and acetyl CoA production
what does the hormone epinephrin do in metabolism mobilizes energy stores for an intense effort
what does epinephrin stimulate? glycogen breakdown in liver and muscle lipolysis, especially in the liver
what does epinephrin inhibit? fatty acid synthesis
what happens in a well fed or absorptive state? insulin is primary hormone storage of excess glucose glycogen fatty acid synthesis and storage as triacylglycerols
what happens in intense effort? epinephrine major hormone top priority is to mobilize glucose from glycogen for muscle oxidative respiration
what happens in early fasting (post absorptive) state? glucagon is primary hormone, epinephrine secondary top priority is to maintain blood glucose level for brain by mobilizing liver and muscle glycogen and switch muscles to fatty acid use to conserve glucose
what happens in starvation? top priority is the maintain brain function so need to make glucose for brain from protein catabolism for gluconeogenesis second priority to reduce protein loss so switch brain from glucose to ketone bodies use as fuel
why should we care about vitamins and minerals? rapid turnover of oral tissues, the first sign of nutritional deficiency are frequently evident in the mouth glossal epithelium is first, lips next
what are vitamins? organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism, most serve as coenzymes, DO NOT PROVIDE ENERGY
most vitamins cannot be synthesized or made in sufficient amounts...EXCEPT vitamin D
what are the two types of vitamins? fat soluble water soluble
what are the fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E, K
what is special about fat soluble vitamins? can be toxic, soluble in fat and fat solvents, stored in the liver, contains only elements of C, H, and O, not readily excreted, stored if not needed, deficiency symptoms slow to develop
what are fat soluble vitamins absorbed with and what are they packaged with? absorbed with dietary fats by the small intestine and packaged in chylomicrons
what class are vitamin A broken down into? retinoids and carotenoids
what is preformed vitamin A? retionol, only found in animal sources or fortified foods
what is provitamin A? beta carotene, plant source
what are the functions of vitamin A? DNA and RNA synthesis, bone and tooth development, integrity of skin and mucous membranes, vision in dim light, immune system
what are the dental vitamins? vitamins A and C
which deficiencies of vitamins are going to be slow to develop? fat soluble vitamin deficiencies
what happens in carotene excess? carotenosis- skin turns deep yellow, especially on the palms and soles
vitamin A toxicity looks like... birth defects, joint pains, dry rough skin, cracked lips, jaundice, alopecia of the eyebrows
what happens in vitamin A deficiencies? mucous linings harden skin, dry rough skin, follicular hyperkeratosis (elbows)
what are the functions of vitamin D? enhances intestinal calcium and phosphorous absorption made in the body with the help of UV rays
what happens during a deficiency and disease of vitamin D rickets in children osteomalacia in adults calcium is taken from bones to make up for insufficient absorption in intestine symptoms: bowed legs, bent posture, pain in ribs
what are some factors affecting vitamin D requirements? aging, malabsorption conditions, kidney failure, exposure to sunlight
what are the functions of vitamin E? protects cell membranes against oxidation, protects the red blood cells
what happens in vitamin E toxicity? muscle weakness, fatigue, most significant effects of vitamin E at greater than 1,000 mg a day
what is the function of vitamin K? forms prothrombin for normal blood clotting, activation of proteins for bone formation
what does deficiency of vitamin K look like? individuals taking anticoagulants are vulnerable to vitamin K related hemorrhagic disease
what are the nutrition sources of vitamin K synthesized in intestinal tract, bodes can produced but cannot produce when we are first born, dark leafy veggies
vitamin K deficiencies are... needed daily, extended use of antibiotic, sterile digestive tract in newborns
what is vitamin B1? Thiamine
what is vitamin B2? riboflavin
what is vitamin B3? Niacin
what is vitamin B6? pyrudoxine
what is vitamin B12? cyanocobalamin
what are the main functions of water soluble vitamins? metabolism of CHO, fats, proteins and blood formation tissues are able to hold limited amounts, can become toxic if megadose is consumed
how are water soluble vitamins absorbed in the body? both active and passive transport along with water in the GI tract directly through intestinal wall and dissolved in body fluids excess is filtered by kidneys and excreted
what do water soluble vitamins contain? C, H, O, N
which vitamin develop rapid symptoms of deficiency? water soluble
what are the nutrient deficiency and disease of thiamin B1? beriberi and wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
what is beriberi? thiamin B1 deficiency, damages nervous and CV symptoms
what is wernicke-korsakoff syndrome? associated with chronic alcoholism, characterized by mental confusion, leads to loss of taste, burning tongue and sensitivity of oral mucosa
when is thiamin B1 deficiency common after? bariatric surgery
what affects the absorption of thiamin? antacids
what does riboflavin B2 do? facilitates energy production, VERY light sensitive vegans who avoid dairy are at risk of deficiency
what is a good source of thiamin? pork
what is riboflavin deficiency? tissue inflammation and breakdown, delayed wound healing
what are the symptoms of riboflavin deficiency B2 burning and itching of the eyes, soreness of lipids, mouth and tongue, purple, swollen tongue, extremely red and smooth lips, angular cheilitis
what is a tryptophan precursor? niacin B3
what does niacin B3 do? red blood cell formation, coenzyme in energy production, lipid and protein metabolism, acts as a vasodilator- causes skin flushing
what is a niacin deficiency? Pellegra: occurs in areas where maize (corn) is major part of the diet
what are the classic signs of niacin deficiency? dementia, depression, diarrhea, dermatitis, death
what is seen orally in a niacin deficiency? tongue becomes painful, scarlet and edematous, loss of filliform and fungiform papilla, smooth shiny surface of tongue, corners of lips are initially pale with fanlike fissuring
what are pyridoxine B6 functions essential coenzyme for protein metabolism, cramps and moodiness for period, converts tryptophan to niacin
what converts tryptophan to niacin? vitamin B6 pyridoxine
what are the best nutrient sources for niacin? animal sources are better than bioavailability
what are the vitamin B6 pyridoxine deficiency symptoms? glossitis, atrophy of filliform papillae, magenta tongue, angular cheilosis
what is peripheral neuropathy and what vitamin is it associated with? weakness, loss of sensation, pins and needles and burning pain vitamin B6 pyridoxine
what are the toxicity symptoms of vitamin b6 pyridoxine? sensory neuropathy numbness in fingers and toes irreversible nerve tissue degeneration
what form is best form of folate? synthetic form is better absorbed
who needs to take folate? women of child bearing age, starting a menstrual cycle prevention of neural tube defects and cleft palate
how much folate do women of child bearing age need to take? how much folate do women who are pregnant need to take? 400 child bearing age 800 pregnant
when do we see decreased amounts of folate acid? women who are on birth control for a long period alcohol abuse
what are the deficiency of folic acid? neural tube defects, anemia, elevated blood homocysteine levels
what are the oral deficiency of folic acid glossitis
what is important about toxicity of folate acid? excess intake may mask vitamin b12 deficiency pernicious anemia
what are the functions of vitamin b12 cobalamin? synthesis of DNA and RNA formation of mature red blood cells
who is at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency? vegan and elderly
what requires intrinsic factor from stomach for absorption vitamin B12
where can we get vitamin B12 from? animal sources only
what are deficiency of vitamin B12? pernicious anemia (elderly commonly) pale gingiva fatigue, tingling numbness in extremities, memory loss, disorientation dementia (alzhiermers)
how does vitamin B12 deficiency in the mouth? glossopyrosis, disappearance of fungiform and filliform, pale, yellowish mucosa, angular cheilosis, hemorrhagic gingiva
what is the function of vitamin B5 pantothenic acid? CHO, protein and fat metabolism
what is important about vitamin B5 pantothenic acid deficiency? rarely occurs may help wound healing
what is vitamin B5 pantothenic acid
what is the function of vitamin B7 or biotin? CHO, protein and fat metabolism
what are the oral consideration for vitamin B7 or biotin? pallor of the tongue, patchy atrophy go lingual papilla (may resemble geographic tongue), glossitis
what is the dosage of vitamin C that you should be taking 60-70 mg
what are the functions of vitamin C collagen synthesis, antioxidant, important in wound healing
what is associated with depletion of vitamin C? infectious processes, smokers, burns, surgery
what does vitamin C deficiency look lke delayed wound healing, poor bone and tooth development, scurvy
what is associated with scurvy? red, swollen gingiva, gingival friability and bleeding, periodontal destruction, tooth mobility, sore brining mouth, malformed enamel and inadequate dentin
what are the antioxidant vitamins? vitamins C, E, and beta carotene (provitamins) inactivate oxygen free radicals
what are free radicals highly reactive particles that carry an unpaired electron, damage cell membranes, DNA and contribute to atherosclerotic plaques, arise from tobacco or radiation
what is the main function of antioxidants? protect against cancer, delay some effects of aging, decrease chance of cataract formation, reduce atherosclerotic plaque buildup
minerals are _____ elements inorganic
what is the major role of minerals aid in regulation of enzymatic reactions
what are the major minerals calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese
which form of minerals is the best for the body? ion form of minerals rather than the non ionized form
what is the recommended dosage of calcium for people 19-50? 1,000 mg a day
what is the recommended dosage of calcium for people over age 50? 1200 mg a day
what are the functions of calcium in the body? bone and teeth formation, neurotransmitters, formation of enzyme thrombin, blood clotting
what are your macro minerals? calcium, sodium
what are your micro minerals? iron, copper, iodine, zinc
what is important about sodium? contributes to high blood pressure, helps regulate the osmosis of water
what is not found in milk? iron
what is the function of copper formation of hemoglobin, enzyme necessary for melanin formation, coenzyme in electron transport chain
what are the functions of zinc? carbon dioxide metabolism
why does dentistry care about nutritional status? caries, healing, immune function
what is diet? what you eat
what is nutrition? what you get from your diet
what is a 24 hour recall record of patient's dietary intake over the previous 24 hours
what are the disadvantages of 24 hour recall? not representative of true intake limited to only one day's intake not all days are good
what is the advantage of 24 hour recall? quick, easy to do chair side
what are you looking for in a 3, 5, or 7 day food diary? eating patterns, consumption and frequency of fermentable carbohydrate, sugar intake, overall nutritional adequacy
what is a 3. 5. or 7 day food diary more accurate account of patient's intake patient has a more active role, able to observe areas that need modifications
what are the disadvantages of 3, 5, or 7 day food record? time consuming for the patient, foods not written down immediately may be forgotten, time consuming to the person assessing the diet
what is the advantages of 3, 5, or 6 day food record? get a better idea of the average intake
what are dietary reference intakes set by and good for? established by IOM for healthy general population help to avoid overconsumption and prevent chronic disease
what are the recommended dietary allowances and what are they good for? were prepared by national academy of science for healthy people based on gender and age- doesn't include special needs such as illness
how much of your diet should come from carbohydrates? 50-60%
how much of your diet should come from simple sugars? 15%
how much of your diet should come from fat? 30%
how much of your diet should come from saturated fat? 10%
how much of your diet should come from protein? 12-15%
what is the most efficient way to take in sugar and maintain glucose levels? complex carbs
what is the mnemonic for grains? The Rich Nicely Folded Ironed MagaZines
what are the nutrients from grains? thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, iron, magnesium, zinc
what is the mnemonic for vegetables and fruit? A Cat Eats Full Plates
what are the nutrients from vegetable and fruit groups? vitamin A, C, E, folate and potassium
what is the mnemonic for milk, cheese and yogurt group Can Polly Ride Downtown to B12 Phantom Magnet Zipmart
what are the nutrients for milk, cheese and yogurt group? calcium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin D, vitamin b12, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc
what is the mnemonic for meat and protein group? Nice For Zebras Riding Bikes 12 Magical times I Believe 6 Pharaoh's Probed
what are the nutrients for meat and protein groups? niacin, folate, zinc, riboflavin, B12, magnesium thiamin, Iron, B-6 Phosphorus, protein
Created by: Chobchi



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