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Complications of pregnancy and labor and delivery

QuestionAnswer
Threatened abortion Spotting and cramping without cervical changes.
Inevitable abortion Spotting and cramping and the cervix begins to dilate and efface.
Incomplete abortion Loss of some of the products of conception occurs with part of the products retained.
Missed abortion Products of conception are retained in utero after fetal death.
DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation- maternal condition in which the clotting cascade is activated, resulting in the formation of clots.
Predisposing conditions for DIC Abruptio placentae, amniotic fluid embolism, gestational hypertension, intrauterine fetal death, liver disease, sepsis.
Nursing interventions for DIC Remove the underlying cause, monitor vital signs, assess for bleeding and signs of shock, prepare for oxygen therapy, volume replacement, monitor urine output and maintain at 30 mL/hr
Dystocia Difficult labor that is prolonged; caused by uterine contractions, the fetus or the bones and tissues of the maternal pelvis.
Assessment findings of dystocia Excessive abdominal pain, abnormal contraction pattern, fetal distress, maternal or fetal tachycardia, lack of progress in labor.
Nursing interventions for dystocia client Assess FHR, monitor uterine contractions, monitor maternal temp and HR, assist with pelvic exam, US, admin prophylactic antibiotics, admin IV fluids, monitor I&O,perform fetal monitoring if pitocin is prescribed, provide rest, assess for prolapse of cord.
Precipitous labor and delivery Labor lasting less than 3 hrs.
Nsg. interventions for precipitous labor Stay with the mother, encourage the mother to pant between contractions, prepare for rupturing membranes, do not try to keep the fetus from being delivered.
Preterm labor Occurs after the 20th week but before the 37 th week of gestation.
S/S preterm labor Uterine contractions, abdominal cramping, low back pain, pelvic pressure, change in character and amt of usual discharge, rupture of amniotic membrane
Nsg interventions for pre term labor Focus on stopping the labor, restrict activity, identify and treat infection, ensure hydration, maintain bed rest and a lateral position, monitor fetal status, admin fluids.
Premature rupture of membranes Spontaneous rupture of the amniotic membrane before the onset of labor.
Rupture of uterus Complete or incomplete separation of the uterine tissue as a result of a tear in the wall of the uterus from the stress of labor. fetus can be palpated outside the uterus.
Created by: roseiv2014