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Exam 2. Immunology Ch 4. Objectives

Definition of immunogenicity Ability of a substance to stimulate an immune response
What is a complete antigen? AKA immunogen. Exhibits immunogenicity
Definition of antigenicity Ability to bind with products of immune response (antibody) but does not stimulate an immune response
What type of antigen exhibits antigenicity? Incomplete antigens
Define epitope antigenic determinants = epitopes. The antigen may have more than 1 type of epitope if there is more than 1 molecule being a part of the cell wall of the bacteria - certain specific molecular sites on large molecules (immunogen/complete Ag)
Describe haptens small molecules that exhibit antigenicity but not immunogenicity (so it is not capable of stimulating antibodies. If antibodies are produced the hapten is able to bind to it)
Explain the clinical and research importance of haptens Abs made to hormones, cAMP, drugs, receptors, and other molecules (ex. ELISA). Drugs/metabolites of drugs or other chemicals attach to proteins of plasma membranes and stimulate humoral or cellular immune responses to structures on self cells (Ex . PCN)
What factors are characteristics of a complete antigen (immunogen). (there are 4) Protein and polysaccharides are better complete Ag than lipids & nucleic acids. Foreignness: Greater immunogenicity if greater phylogenetic distance; molecular weight: more weight = greater the immunogenicity; Chemical composition & complexity
What factors other than the chemical nature of the antigen/immunogen that determine whether an immune response will occur, or the degree to which an immune response will occur. (there are 3) administration of antigen, adjuvant, & genetic makeup of animal
How do B cells interact with antigens/immunogens? B cells recognize the 3-dimensional shape of antigenic determinant and it must fit into the Ag-binding pocket of the BCR
How do T cells interact with antigens/immunogens? T cells recognize processed antigenic peptide associated with MHC I and II by using TCR
What antigens are recognized by B cells? Globular proteins; polysaccharides; lipids. External portions vs internal portions (hydrophilic vs hydrophobic). Sequential and nonsequential amino acids. Small peptides fold to fit into Ag-binding pocket of Ab. Native conformation, not denatured
What antigens are recognized by T cells? Internal portions of molecules. Denatured. Mostly proteins; some lipids and glycolipids attached to CD1 which is similar to classical MHC
What structures in/on bacteria can serve as antigens/immunogens? Bacteria = cell wall (gram negative or positive); mycobacteria; spirochetes. Capsule. Flagella, fimbriae, pili, or exotoxins produced by bacteria
What structures in/on viruses can serve as antigens/immunogens? Viral antigens = animal virses (nucleic acid + protein capsid. Lipoprotein envelope. Virion); antigenic components (Protein or glycoprotein of capsid and envelop; Proteins associated with nucleic acids)
Created by: Thommy413