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HCC 2008 Asepsis

QuestionAnswer
what is asepsis? the absence of disease producing microorganisms
why is it important? to keep patients safe, and prevent stress and assist with adaptation
aseptic techniques help prevent... the spread of infection
infection a disease state that results from presence of pathogens in or on the body
infection cycle infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
an infectious agent is a disease producing microorganism; ex. bacteria, virus, fungi; pathogen
a reservoir is a place the supports the multiplication and growth of microorganisms; ex. humans, animals, food, water, objects, soil
portal of exit point of escape from the reservoir; ex.respiratory, GI/GU tract, breaks in the skin, blood and tissues
transmission routs of travel for a microorganism; two types direct and indirect
direct contact touching, kissing, sex
indirect contact contact with a contaminated object; vehicles, vectors, or airborne
vehicles contaminated blood or food; ex. food poisoning
vectors mosquitoes, ticks, fleas
airborne through the air
portal of entry point at which microorganisms enter the host; ex. urinary, respiratory, GI tracts, break in the skin, mucous membranes, vaginal
susceptible host a person with a decreases ability to overcome the pathogen or its effects
factors affecting body defenses age (elderly and children/babies), immune status, illness, physical condition
stages of infection incubation, prodromal, full stage of illness, convalescent period
incubation stage interval btw when the pathogen enters the body and when symptoms appear; there are no symptoms but the organisms are growing and multiplying
prodromal stage early signs and symptoms are present, but they are vague and non specific; ex. fatigue, malaise, low grade fever; person is infectious and the infection can spread most easily
local one part of the body
systemic through out the whole body
full stage of illness specific signs and symptoms of infection are present
convalescent period recovery period from infection; signs and symptoms diminish, then disappear and a healthy state emerges; return to wellness (appetite and strength returning)
Normal Flora bodies natural defenses inhibit the growth of microorganisms
Inflammatory response bodies way of fighting infection, a protective mechanisms that eliminates the pathogen and allows tissues to heal
Immune response specific reactions to invading pathogens; antigen and antibodies interactions
Humoral immunity antigen-antibody reaction
antigen foreign material
antibody attacks the antigen
Cellular immunity an increase in the # of lymphocytes (WBCs) to attack and destroy organisms seen as harmful
Factors affecting susceptibility to Infection intact skin and mucous membranes, pH level in GI and GU tracts, WBCs (resist and attack pathogens), Age sex race heredity, immunization, fatigue stress, nutrition and general health status, # of invasive or indwelling medical devices
Assessment health history should include immunization status and previous or recurring infections, observe for signs and symptoms of infection
Local signs of infection redness, swelling, warmth, pain and loss of function in the affected area
Systemic signs of infection fever, tachycardia, lethargy, anorexia, enlarged lymph nodes
Diagnostic Data for Infection CBC with differential, Culture and sensitivity(wound, blood, sputum), C-reactive protein, Imagery (x-ray, computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging)
6 types of WBCs neutrophils, Bands (immature neutrophils), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, Basophils
Absolute Count obtained multiplying he differential count by the total WBC count;
Response to bacterial infection increase WBC, Increase Neutrophils, Lymphocytes and Monocytes increase in viral infections, Eosinophils increase in parasitic infection or allergic reaction
Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) insures the client is getting the correct antibiotic for the organism causing the infection, sensitivity is the ability of the antibiotic to inhibit growth of the bacteria
Resistant antibiotic does not kill the bacteria
when collecting a culture what must you consider? collect before antibiotics are given, use a sterile container, special skin prep to prevent contamination, usually drawn in both arms (to make sure no false positives)
C-reactive protein is a special types of protein produced by the liver that is only present during episodes of acute inflammation
activities that prevent infection or break the chain of infection Medical(clean) and Surgical(sterile)
Medical/Clean procedures and practices that reduce the number and transfer of pathogens
Surgical/Clean Asepsis sterilization of items and keeping them clean practices used to render and keep objects and areas free of microorganisms
you would be using a clean method when... washing hands or wearing gloves
you would use a sterile method when.... changing a dressing or inserting a catheter
microorganisms grow best in... a warm, dark, moist environment that provides nutrients; ex. mouth, blood, GI and GU tract
microorganisms move from one place to another in a cyclic fashion through... contact, air currents , or capillary action
The larger the quantity of pathogens... the greater the chance of disease
The number of microorganisms affects disease occurrence
the great the pathogens the _______ the rate of getting the disease higher
___________ is the most effective way to prevent the spread of microorganisms hand washing
every nursing activity requires medical asepsis
keep _________ items away from clothing and keep soiled linen off the ________ soiled; floor
clean ______ soiled first, then ________ area least; dirtier
avoid raising dust... don't shake linens
dispose of soiled items immediately
good hygiene keep hair, skin, nails and mouth clean, cover mouth when cough or sneeze
surgical asepsis is used regularly in the operating room, delivery room, and labs for invasive studies
sterile objects must be held above the waist
never walk away or turn your back on a sterile field... you never know what could happen to it when you are no looking
disinfection destroys all pathogenic organisms except spore
disinfection can be obtained by using chemical or mechanical means
concurrent disinfection is performed day to day
terminal disinfection is performed at the end of a stay
disinfectant solutions bleach 10% solution or 1 to 10 parts, betadine, alcohol
sterilization destroys all pathogenic organisms including the spores
methods for sterilization autoclave, boiling, dry heat, radiation or Ethylene Oxide gas, free steam
autoclave 250-254 degrees F (all microbe forms)
boiling for 10 min (in home setting) but it cant destroy some viruses and spores
dry heat 350 degrees F for 2 hours
radiation or Ethylene Oxide gas used when heat will destroy equipment
Free steam used to sterilize products that cant handle the pressure of the autoclave
body areas that are sterile bladder, trachea, peritoneal cavity, brain... all internal organs except the gut are considered sterile
body areas where microorganisms can normally be found skin, nose, oral cavity, bowel
only a sterile object can touch a sterile object
medical asepsis areas are contaminated if they have or are suspected to contain pathogens
surgical asepsis areas are contaminated if they are touched by any object that is not also sterile
sterile fields must be kept... dry
________ __________ can cary pathogens to sterile field air currents
Nosocomial Infection hospital acquired infection- occurs while patient is staying in the hospital
Exogenous pathogen is acquired from other people
endogenous pathogen comes from microbial life harbored in the person
Iatrogenic infection results from a treatment of diagnostic procedure
someone gets a central line place and then gets a blood infection. This is an example of a Nosocomial Iatrogenic Infection
Resistant Organisms pathogens capable of resisting antibiotics
some examples of resistant organisms are Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Intermediate Resistant Staph Aureus (VISA), Vancomycin Resistant enterococcus (VRE)
Some Policies Regarding Asepsis Hand washing, cleaning and disinfecting rooms, disinfection or sterilization of equipment, linen in bags before taken to laundry, no sitting on patients beds, Room assignments, staff have proof of freedom of or immunity to disease
Isolation techniques are used to... prevent the spread of infection, contained the organism in a limited area, used in hospitals, outpatient centers, homes, limit the movement and social contacts of a person with a communicable disease
Barriers gloves, gowns, masks, and eye wear
body fluids blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, tissues
standard precaution regulations include consider all patients potentially infected, wear gloves when in contact with blod and body fluid or objects contaminated with blood or body fluids, cover any draining wounds, use other protective equipment if contamination or splashing of body fluids is p
Linen precautions keep away from nurses skin, soiled linen should go in a red bag
Sharps precautions never recap needles, use needle-less devices, place in sharps container immediately, sweep broken glass if you drop a glass object
Airborne transmission for diseases transmitted by airborne nuclei. ex. measles, TB, varciella
Droplet transmission for diseases transmitted by large particle droplets. ex. pneumonia, strep, H flu, mumps, pertussis, rubella
Contact transmission for diseases transmitted by direct contact with patient or items in their environment. ex. infectious diarrhea, impetigo, wound infections, resistant bacteria, MRSA)
PRECAUTIONS for airborne transmission keep the door closed, patient in a private room with negative air pressure filtration system, wear a filtration mask, minimize patient transport and patient should wear mask outside of the room, dedicate equipment (BP cuff, thermometer) JUST for them
droplet PRECAUTIONS private room, may keep door open, wear mask within 3 feet of patient visitors too (should wear mask when in the room just in case), transport only when necessary and patient wears a mask, dedicate equipment
contact PRECAUTIONS private room if possible, wear gloves when entering room, chang gloves and wash hands often, wear gloves if contact with infectious agent is likely, limit patient movement out of room (if the go out they wear gloves and gown), dedicated equipment
infection Control Nurse educate patient and staff about infection control technique and collects stats about infections
neutrophils increase infection fighting (bacterial)
lymphocytes and monocytes increase in viral infections
eosinophils increase in parasitic infection or allergic reaction
Created by: jaed008