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First Aid - Psych

Classical Conditioning Pavlov's dogs, learning in which a natural response is generated by conditioned stimulus that previously was presented with unconditioned stimulus. Usually deals with involuntary response.
Operant Conditioning (4) categories are? Positive: desired reward causes action (addition) Negative: Target behavior is followed by removal of ADVERSE stimulation (removal) Punishment: Repeated application of adverse stimulus Extinction: Discontinuation of positive or negative reinforcement
Transference and Countertransference: Transference (patient): Patient projects feelings onto physician Countertransference (doctor): Doctor projects feelings onto patient
What is an ego defense? Unconscious mental process used to resolve conflict and prevent undesired feelings (e.g. anxiety, depression)
What are the Immature Ego Defenses? Acting Out Dissociation Denial Displacement Fixation Identification Isolation Projection Rationalization Reaction Formation Regression Repression Splitting
What are the Mature Defenses? Alturism: alleviation of guilt by unsolicited generosity Humor: appreciate anxiety provoking circumstance Sublimation: replace unacceptable wish with course in value system Suppression: intentional withholding of idea of feeling
What is the difference between Suppression and Repression? Suppression is intentional, Repression is the involuntary withholding of feeling (not remembering traumatic event)
What is the difference between Sublimation and Reaction Formation Reaction Formation: Replacing a warded-off idea or feeling by an (unconsciously derived) emphasis on it's opposite (monastery) Sublimation: redirecting onto something that agrees with one's value system, taking frustration into sports.
What are the Mature Defenses again? Adults wear a SASH: Sublimation Alturism Supression Humor
What are the effects of Infant Deprivation? The 4 W's Weak Wordless Wanting Wary Deprivation >6mo can be irreversible, can result in death Long Term Effects: dec. muscle tone poor language poor socialization lack basic trust Anaclitic depression (infant withdrawn/unresp) Weight loss
Signs of Physical Child Abuse? Fractures: spiral, bucket-handle, ribs Burns: cig, scald Subdural Hematoma Bruise Retinal Hemorrhage Usually Biological Mother 3000 deaths a yr 80%<3yo
Signs of Sexual Abuse? Genital Trauma, Oral Trauma STDs, UTIs Usually known to victim, male Peak incidence 9-12yo
Child Neglect Failure to provide adequate food, shelter, supervision, education, affection. Most common form of neglect. Evidence: poor hygiene, malnutrition, withdrawal, impaired soc/emot development MUST BE REPORTED TO CHILD PROTECTIVE SERVICES
What must be reported to child protective services (3)? Physical and sexual abuse, as well as child neglect
Child Onset Disorders (5) ADHD Conduct Disorder (vs. antisocial personality disorder) Oppositional Defiant Disorder Tourette Syndrome Separation Anxiety
What is a pervasive developmental disorder? Difficulty w/ language and failure to acquire or early loss of social skills Autism Rett
Neurotransmitter Changes Alzheimers? Decreased Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter Changes Anxiety? increase NEpi dec. GABA, 5HT
Neurotransmitter Changes Depression? decrease NEpi, GABA, 5HT
Neurotransmitter Changes Huntington Disease? dec GABA, ACh inc Dopamine
Neurotransmitter Changes Parkinsons? dec dopamine increase 5HT, ACh
Neurotransmitter Changes Schizophrenia? Increase Dopamine
Korsakoff Amnesia Classic anterograde amnesia caused by thiamine deficiency and destruction of the mammilary bodies. May cause retrograde amnesia, seen in alcoholics with confabulation.
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Triad: opthalmoplegia (extra occulomotor palsy) ataxia confusion other: confabulation, personality changes, memory loss (permanent) Damage: medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, mammilary bodies
Dissociative Amnesia Inability to recall personal information, usually due to trauma or stress. May be accompanied by dissociative fugue (abrupt travel or wandering during period of dissociative amnesia associated with traumatic circumstance)
What is a Cognitive Disorder? Changes in Cognition (memory, attn, language, judgement) associated with other abnormalities of the CNS, general medical condition, medications, substance use, Includes: Delerium Dementia
Delerium Changes in the Sensorium (consciousness changes) rapid dec. in attn and level of arousal Characterized: disorganized thinking, hallucinations, illusions, misperceptions, dist sleep/wake, cognitive dysfunction. Secondary to other conditions TX Antipsyc
Dementia Characterized by memory loss gradual decrease in intellectual ability. Irrev cause: Alzh, Lewy Body Dementia, Huntington, Pick's, CJD, chronic substance abuse Reversible cause: NPH, vit b12 def, hypoth, neurosyph, HIV
Difference between Hallucination and Delusion? Hallucination: misperceived external stimuli Delusion: false belief that persist despite the facts
What is Psychosis? Distorted perception of reality characterized by delusions, hallucinations, +/ disorganized thinking. Medical illness, psychiatric illness, both
Schizophrenia: >6mo increased dopamine 2 or more hallucination dellusion disorg speech disorg or catatonic behavior negative sx
What are the (4) schizo types? Schizoid Schizotypal +odd thinking Schizophrenic Schizoaffective +bipolar or depressive mood disorder (2wks of stable mood w/ psych sx, and major depressive, manic episode)
Brief psychotic disorder? <1 mo usually stress related
Schizophreniphorm disorder? The criteria for schizophrenia 1-6 mo.
Delusional Disorder
Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disorders
Manic Episode
Hypomanic Episode
Bipolar Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Created by: astaller



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