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social psychology

see, phychology can be fun!!

social psychology 30social psychology30 answer
accountable required to explain or answer
alienaded a feeling of indifference or distance
anti seminic descrimination or hostility
attitudes ways of thinking
autocracy one ruler with absolute power
benovolent the purpose of doing good.
capitalist favours an economic system where welath is individual
Applied research Research designed to increase the understanding of and solutions to real-world problems by using current social psychological knowledge.
Arousal: Cost-reward model A theory that helping or not helping is a function of emotional arousal and analysis of the costs and rewards of helping.
Avoidant attachment style An expectation about social relationships characterized by a lack of trust and a suppression of attachment needs.
Balance theory A theory that people desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts, feelings, and social relationships.
Basic research Research designed to increase knowledge about social behavior
Basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) Actively identifying with and embracing the success and positive evaluations of others as is they were one's own
Behaviorism A school of psychological thought that advocates the study of observable behavior rather than unobservable mental processes.
Belief An estimate of the probability that something is true.
Body esteem A person's attitudes toward his or her body.
Bystander intervention model A theory that whether bystanders intervene in an emergency is a function of a 5-step decision making process.
Balance theory A theory that people desire cognitive consistency or balance in their thoughts, feelings, and social relationships.
Catharsis The reduction in the aggressive drive following an aggressive act.
Central route to persuasion Persuasion that occurs when people think carefully about a communication and are influenced by the strength of its arguments.
Central traits Traits that exert a disproportionate influence on people's overall impressions, causing them to assume the presence of other traits.
Classical conditioning Learning through association, when a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is paired with a stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) that naturally produces an emotional response.
Cognitive consistency The tendency to seek consistency in one's cognitions
Collectivism philosophy of life stressing the priority of group needs over individual needs, a preference for tightly knit social relationships, and a willingness to submit to the influence of one's group.
Companionate love The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined.
Compliance Publicly acting in accord with a direct request.
Confederate An accomplice of an experimenter whom research participants assume is a fellow participant or bystander.
Conformity A yielding to perceived group pressure.
Contact hypothesis The theory that under certain conditions, direct contact between antagonistic groups will reduce prejudice.
Contingency model of leadership The theory that leadership effectiveness depends both on whether leaders are task oriented or relationship oriented, and on the degree to which they have situational control.
Control group Experimental participants who are not exposed to the independent variable.
Correlation coefficient A statistical measure of the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two variables, which can range from -1.00 to +1.00.
Correlational studies Research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two or more naturally occurring variables.
Correspondent inference An inference that the action of an actor corresponds to, or is indicative of, a stable personal characteristic.
.Covariation principle A principle of attribution theory stating that for something to be the cause of a particular behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not occur.
Culture The total lifestyle of a people from a particular social grouping, including all the ideas, symbols, preferences, and material objects that they share.
Cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) Actively disidentifying with and distancing oneself from the failures or negative evaluations of others.
Debriefing A procedure at the conclusion of a research session in which participants are given full information about the nature and hypotheses of the study.
Deception A research technique that provides false information to persons participating in a study.
Deindividuation The loss of a sense of individual identity and a loosening of normal inhibitions against engaging in behavior that is inconsistent with internal standards.
Dependent variable The experimental variable that is measured because it is believed to depend on the manipulated changes in the independent variable.
Depressive explanatory style A habitual tendency to attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes, and positive events to external, unstable, and specific causes.
Descriptive statistics Numbers that summarize and describe the behavior or characteristics of a particular sample of participants in a study.
Diffusion of responsibility The belief that the presence of other people in a situation makes one less personally responsible for the events that occur in that situation.
Discounting principle A principle of attribution theory stating that whenever there are several possible causal explanations for a particular event, people tend to be much less likely to attribute the effect to any particular cause.
Discrimination A negative action toward members of a specific social group.
Door-in-the-face technique A two-step compliance technique in which, after having a large request refused, the influencer counteroffers with a much smaller request.
Egoistic helping A form of helping in which the ultimate goal of the helper is to increase his or her own welfare.
Elaboration likelihood model A theory that there are two ways in which persuasive messages can cause attitude change, each differing in the amount of cognitive effort or elaboration they require.
Embarrassment An unpleasant emotion experienced when we believe that we cannot perform coherently in a social situation.
Empathy A feeling of compassion and tenderness upon viewing a victim's plight.
Empathy-altruism hypothesis A theory proposing that experiencing empathy for someone in need produces an altruistic motive for helping.
Equity theory The theory that people are most satisfied in a relationship when the ratio between rewards and costs is similar for both partners.
Ethnic identity An individual's sense of personal identification with a particular ethnic group.
Ethnocentrism A pattern of increased hostility toward outgroups accompanied by increased loyalty to one's ingroup.
Excitation transfer A psychological process in which arousal caused by one stimulus is transferred and added to arousal elicited by a second stimulus.
Exemplification Eliciting perceptions of integrity and moral worthiness.
Experimental methods Research designed to test cause-effect relationships between variables.
Experimental realism The degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves those who participate in it.
External attribution An attribution that locates the cause of an event to factors external to the person, such as luck, or other people, or the situation.
External validity The extent to which a study's findings can be generalized to people beyond those in the study itself.
False consensus bias The tendency to exaggerate how common one's own characteristics and opinions are in the general population
Femininity Possession of expressive personality traits.
Field experiment An experiment conducted in natural, real-life settings, outside the laboratory.
Foot-in-the-door technique A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures compliance to a small request, and then later follows this with a larger, less desirable request.
Frustration-aggression hypothesis The theory that frustration causes aggression.
Functional approach Attitude theories that emphasize that people develop and change their attitudes based on the degree to which they satisfy different psychological needs. To change an attitude, one must understand the underlying function that attitude serves.
Fundamental attribution error The tendency to make internal attributions over external attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
Gender The meanings that societies and individuals attach to being female and male.
Gender differences Culturally based differences between males and females.
Gender identity The knowledge that one is a male or a female and the internalization of this fact into one's self-concept.
Gender schema A mental framework for processing information based on its perceived male or female qualities.
Gender schema theory Bem's theory that children develop schemas containing culturally based gender information which they use to understand themselves and the world.
Gender stereotypes A society's expectations about the characteristics of females as a group and males as a group.
Group Two or more people who interact with and influence one another over a period of time, and who depend upon one another and share common goals and a collective identity.
Group cohesiveness The attractiveness that group members have for one another
Group polarization Group-produced enhancement or exaggeration of members' initial attitudes through discussion.
Groupthink deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment in a group that results from an excessive desire to reach consensus.
Heterosexism A system of cultural beliefs, values, and customs that exalts heterosexuality and denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior or identity.
Heterosexuality A primary or exclusive attraction to individuals of the other sex.
Heuristics Timesaving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules of thumb.
Homosexuality primary or exclusive attraction to individuals of one's own sex.
Homunculus little person residing within the brain, from where he/she governs human behavior (based on ancient Egyptian beliefs).
Hostile aggression The intentional use of harmful behavior in which the goal is simply to cause injury or death to the victim.
Hypotheses Specific propositions or expectations about the nature of thins derived from a theory.
Ideology set of beliefs and values held by the members of a social group, which explains its culture both to itself and to other groups.
Idiosyncrasy Interpersonal influence that a leader earns by helping the group achieve task goals and by conforming to group norms.
Illusory correlation The belief that two variables are associated with one another when in fact there is little or no actual association
Implicit personality theory Assumptions or naive belief systems people make about which personality traits go together
Impression formation The process by which one integrates various sources of information about another into an overall judgment.
Independence Not being subject to control by others.
Independent variable The experimental variable that the researcher manipulates.
Individualism A philosophy of life stressing the priority of individual needs over group needs, a preference for loosely knit social relationships, and a desire to be relatively autonomous of others' influence.
Inferential statistics Mathematical analyses that move beyond mere description of research data to make inferences about the larger population from which the sample was drawn.
Information campaigns Attempts to persuade people to alter their lifestyles in more healthful directions through the use of the mass media and other communication channels.
Information dependence Dependence upon others for information about the world that reduces uncertainty.
Informational social influence Conformity, compliance, or obedience due to a desire to gain information (information dependence).
Informed consent A procedure by which people freely choose to participate in a study only after they are told about the activities they will perform.
Ingratiation Saying positive things about someone in order to get them to like you.
Ingroup A group to which a person belongs and that forms a part of his or her social identity.
Ingroup bias The tendency to give more favorable evaluations and greater rewards to ingroup members than to outgroup members.
Instrumental aggression The intentional use of harmful behavior so that one can achieve some other goal.
Instrumental conditioning form of learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable, depending on it consequences. Rewards increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated, whereas punishment or no reward reduces the probability.
Interactionism An important perspective in social psychology that emphasizes the combined effects of both the person and the situation on human behavior.
Internal attribution An attribution that locates the cause of an event to factors internal to the person, such as personality traits, moods, attitudes, abilities, or effort
Interpersonal attraction A person's desire to approach another individual.
Intimacy Sharing that which is inmost with others.
Intimidation Arousing fear and gaining power by convincing others that one is dangerous.
Jealousy The negative emotional reaction experienced when a relationship that is important to a person's self-concept is threatened by a real or imagined rival.
Jigsaw classroom A cooperative group-learning technique designed to reduce prejudice and raise self-esteem.
Created by: classclown05
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