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TermDefinition
acquired immunity the resistance acquired by a host as a result of previous natural exposure to an infectious agent. May be induced by passive or active immunization.
active immunization results when exposure to a disease organism triggers the immune system to produce antibodies to that disease.
agent causative factor invading a susceptible host through an environment favorable to produce disease, such as a biological or chemical agent.
common vehicle transportation of the infectious agent from an infected host to a susceptible host via water, food, milk, blood, serum, or plasma
communicable disease a disease of human or animal origin caused by an infectious agent and resulting from transmission of that agent from an infected person, animal, or inanimate source to a susceptible host. Infectious disease may be communicable or non-communicable
communicable period the time or times when an infectious agent may be transferred from an infected source directly or indirectly to a new host.
disease an indication of a physiological dysfunction or a pathological reaction to an infection.
elimination to remove a disease from a large geographic area such as a country or region of the world.
emerging infectious diseases diseases in which the incidence has increased in the past 2 decades or has the potential to increase in the near future.
endemic a disease/event that is found to be present (occurring) in a population in which there is a persistent (usual) presence with low to moderate disease/event cases. An endemic disease is one that is maintained locally without the need for outside influence
environment all of those factors internal and external to the client that constitute the context in which the client lives and that influence and are influenced by the host and agent-host interactions.
epidemic occurrence of a disease within an area that is clearly in excess of expected levels (endemic) for a given time period. A condition that is widespread
epidemiologic triangle interaction among the host, agent, and environment.
eradication the irreversible termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agents worldwide.
herd immunity immunity of a group or community.
horizontal transmission person-to-person spread of infection through one or more of the following routes: direct/indirect contact, common vehicle, airborne, or vector-borne.
hospital-acquired infection nfection transmitted during hospitalization or developed within a hospital or other health care setting.
host a living organism, human or animal, in which an infectious agent can exist under natural conditions.
incubation period time interval beginning with the invasion of the infectious agent and continuing until the organism multiplies to sufficient numbers to produce a host reaction and clinical symptoms.
infection the state produced by the invasion of a host by an infectious agent. Such infection may or may not produce clinical signs.
infectiousness a measure of the potential ability of an infected host to transmit the infection to other hosts.
natural immunity species-determined innate resistance to an infectious agent.
pandemic refers to the epidemic spread of the problem over several countries or continents (such as the SARS outbreak).
passive immunization immunization by transfer of a specific antibody from an immunized person to one who is not immunized.
resistance the ability of the host to withstand infection.
surveillance describes and monitors health events through ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data for the purpose of planning, implementing, and evaluating public health interventions.
universal precautions this strategy requires that blood and body fluids from all clients be handled as if infected with a disease or bloodborne pathogens.
vector a non-human organism, often an insect, that either mechanically or biologically plays a role in the transmission of an infectious agent from source to host.
vertical transmission passing the infection from parent to offspring via sperm, placenta, milk, or contact in the vaginal canal at birth.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) AIDS is the symptomatic phase of HIV infection, and consists of immunodeficiency resulting in cancers and infections that affect body systems, such as the central nervous system.
chlamydia sexually transmitted disease caused by the organism Chlamydia trachomatis that causes infection of the urethra and cervix. Infections may be asymptomatic, and result in severe morbidity if left untreated.
directly observed therapy (DOT) a system of providing medications for clients with tuberculosis infection in which the client is monitored to maximize adherence to the medication regimen and treatment.
genital herpes a virus that attacks the genitals and sacral nerve. Infection is characterized by painful lesions that present as vesicles and progress to ulcerations on the male and female genitals, buttocks, or upper thighs.
genital warts cauliflower-appearing growths that are caused by human papillomavirus.
gonorrhea a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, resulting in inflammation of the urethra and cervix and dysuria; or it may result in no symptoms.
hepatitis A virus (HAV) a virus that is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Onset is usually acute with fever, nausea, lack of appetite, malaise, and abdominal discomfort, followed after several days by jaundice.
hepatitis B virus (HBV) a virus that is transmitted through exposure to body fluids. Infection results in a clinical picture that ranges from a self-limited acute infection to fulminant hepatitis or hepatic carcinoma, possibly leading to death.
hepatitis C virus (HCV) a virus that is transmitted through exposure to blood and body fluids. HCV infection may present with such mild symptoms that it goes unrecognized. It is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States.
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) taking a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs.
HIV antibody test a laboratory procedure that detects antibody to HIV. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the test commonly used in screening blood for the antibody to HIV; the Western blot is used as the confirmatory test.
HIV infection infection with human immunodeficiency virus; a phase of this infection is subclinical, but infected individuals remain capable of transmitting the virus by specific behaviors.
human immunodeficiency virus the virus that causes HIV infection and AIDS.
human papillomavirus a sexually transmitted disease that results in genital warts (condylomata acuminata) that grow in the vulva, vagina, cervix, urinary meatus, scrotum, or perianal area. A link exists between specific HPV types and cervical cancer.
incidence in epidemiology, the number of new cases of infection or disease that occur in a defined population in a specified period of time.
incubation time interval beginning with the invasion of the infectious agent and continuing until the organism multiplies to sufficient numbers to produce a host reaction and clinical symptoms.
injection drug use includes intravenous and subcutaneous drug injection, the latter usually over the abdominal area.
nongonococcal urethritis inflammation of the urethra from microorganisms other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Chlamydia trachomatis has been implicated as the cause of 50% of cases.
partner notification identifying and locating contacts of persons who have been diagnosed with a transmissible disease in order to notify them of exposure and encourage them to seek medical treatment.
pelvic inflammatory disease infection of the female reproductive organs, resulting in infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Acute s/s include lower abdominal pain, increased vaginal discharge, urinary frequency, vomiting, and fever. PID results from untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia.
perinatal HIV transmission transmission of HIV from the mother to the fetus or infant during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.
prevalence the number or percentage of persons in a given population with a disease or condition at a given point in time. Also the proportion of existing cases of a health outcome in a population at a particular time.
sexually transmitted diseases communicable diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV infection that can be transmitted by sexual activity.
syphilis Infection characterized by the appearance of lesions or chancres that may involve any tissue. Relapses are frequent and, after the initial chancre and secondary symptoms, syphilis may exist without symptoms for years.
tuberculosis transmitted by airborne transmission, resulting in pulmonary symptoms and wasting. Infection can be latent and asymptomatic, later progressing to active infection.
American Red Cross a national organization that seeks to reduce human suffering through various health, safety, and disaster relief programs in affiliation with the International Committee of the Red Cross
BioSense a data sharing program to facilitate surveillance of unusual patterns or clusters of diseases in the United States. It shares data with local and state health departments and is a part of the BioWatch system.
bioterrorism the intentional use of a pathogen or biological product to cause harm to a human, animal, plant, or other living organism in order to influence the conduct of government or to intimidate or coerce a civilian population.
BioWatch an early warning system for biothreats that uses an environmental sensor system to test the air for biological agents in several major metropolitan areas.
CBRNE threats chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive threats to public safety.
Cities Readiness Initiative
Created by: jam9895