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Lab Values

CAPA ABGs / Acid-Base Balance

What is the normal value for pH in humans? 7.35 - 7.45
What is the normal value for pCO2 in humans? 35-45
What is ithe normal pO2 values? 80-100
What is the normal HCO3 (Bicarbonate) level? 22-26
A pH of 7.2 is ? Acidic
Carbon dioxide is an acid or a base? Acid
What organ controls CO2? lungs
CO2 has a _________ relationship with pH inverse
A pH of 7.5 is acidic or basic? Basic (Alkaline)
HCO3 (bicarbonate) is controled by what organ? Kidneys
A HCO3 of 20 is acidic or alkaline? Acidic
A HCO3 of 28 is acidic or alkaline? Alkaline (Base)
HCO3 is the body's ______________________ buffer system (controlled by the kidneys - kicks in when respiratory control faile)
Respiratory Acidosis is caused by what? Lungs failing to eliminate CO2 (not breathing, shallow breathing, decreased ventilation)
Confusion, Headache, Tachycardia and weakness are signs of what? Acute Respiratory Acidosis
Weakness, Dull Headache, Sleep Disturbance, Impaired memory, and Personality changes are signs of what? Chronic Respiratory Acidosis (e.g. COPD, Emphysema, OSA)
When CO2 increases, pH ______________ decreases (becomes acidodic)
How does the nurse treat Respiratory Acidosis? Maintain patent airway, oxygen therapy, pulmonary toilet, ventilation support
What should the PACU nurse assess often when a patient has Respiratory Acidosis? LOC
Hyperventilation can lead to what? Respiratory Alkalosis
Name causes of respiratory Alkalosis Anxiety, Mechanical ventilation, Hypoxemia, CNS stimulation
Chvostek's and Trousseau's sign are symptoms of what disorder Respiratory Alkalosis
Tetany, Paresthesia, Tachycardia, pale, anxiety are signs of what? Respiratory Alkalosis
How do you treat Respiratory Alkalosis? Decrease the respiratory rate (decrease ventilator, focused breathing, oxygen therapy)
What are some causes of Metabolic Acidosis? DKA, Renal Failure, Diarrhea, Shock, Alcoholism
What are signs of Metabolic Acidosis Warm flushed skin, fatigue, weakness, Kussmaul's respirations, decreased LOC
How do you treat Metabolic Acidosis? Hydration, Correct the underlying cause (sodium Bicarbonate not usually given)
Blood transfusions may cause what acid/base disorder? Metabolic Alkalosis (blood product is basic)
N/V, certain medications, and TPN may cause what? Metabolic Alkalosis
What is the hallmark sign of Metabloic Alkalosis? Increased bicarbonate level with rising pCO2
Confusion, Seizures, hypotension, shallow breathing, and tingling/numbness are signs of what? Metabolic Alkalosis
How do you treat Metabolic Alkalosis? Antiemetic medication, seizures precautions, replace electrolytes as indicated by labs
What is the body's quick compensation mechanism for acid/base disruption? Respiratory rate (very sensative and compensates quickly)
How does the kidney compensate for acid/base disorders Changes the amount of Hydrogen excreted and bicarbonate retained (more powerful, but slower than respiratory compensation)
Created by: keviannk