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Endocrine System Study Stack

What is the Endocrine system? a collection of glands that produce hormones directly into the bloodstream and act on target cells.
What is an endocrine gland? a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals
Where are the endocrine glands located in the body? They are located throughout the body.
How do endocrine glands function? They can regulate metabolism, aid in transport of substances across cell membranes, play roles in growth, development and reproduction.
What is the structure of a steroid? Give an example? complex rings of carbon synthesized from cholesterol, lipid soluble EX: estrogen
What is the structure of a non-steroid hormone? Give an example? made up of amino acids, soluble in water EX: Norepinephrine, epinephrine
Describe steroid action? Steroids diffuse directly into cell membrane, target cells are located within the nucleus, hormone directly involved in protein synthesis; hormone-receptor complex bind with DNA
What are the similarities between steroid and non-steroid hormone action? stimulates changes in target cells, carried in bloodstream, promote cellular changes and production of proteins
What are prostaglandins? They are synthesized from arachidonic acid in cell membranes.
What are the steps in a feedback mechanism? The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland stimulates an endocrine gland to release hormones which act on target cells and the action occurs. Concentrations of endocrine released hormone inhibit hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Describe the structure of the pituitary attached to hypothalamus and consists of two lobes: anterior and posterior
What is the function of the pineal gland? "biological clock" and enables body to distinguish day from night
What is the function of the thyroid gland? regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
What is the function of the Parathyroid gland? regulates blood and phosphate
What is the function of the Adrenal gland? response to stress and fright and conservation of minerals and glucose metabolism
What is the function of the Testis? Reproduction
What is the function of Ovaries? Reproduction
What is the function of the pancreas? secretes digestive and regulates blood sugar
What is the function of the thymus gland? Immunity
Name the hormones produced by the pineal gland and their actions? melatonin - regulates sleep patterns
Name the hormones produced by the thyroid gland and their actions? thyroxine - increase rate of energy release from carbohydrates triiodothyronine - same as thyroxine (more potent) calcitonin - lowers blood calcium and phosphate ions
Name the hormones produced by the parathyroid gland and their actions? Parathyroid hormone - causes osteoclasts to release calcium and increase blood calcium
Name the hormones produced by the adrenal gland and their actions? epinephrine, norepinephrine (Adrenalin)- stimulates adrenal medulla to increase concentration of blood sugar, inhibit digestion Aldosterone (mineralocorticoid) - stimulates adrenal cortex to conserve Na, K Cortisol - stimulates glucose synthesis
Name the hormones produced by the testis and their actions? Testosterone - maturation of sperm and secondary sex characteristics
Name the hormones produced by the ovaries and their actions? Estrogen - stimulates development of female secondary sex characteristcs Progesterone - changes uterus during reproductive cycles
Name the hormones produced by the pancreas and their actions? glucagon - low blood sugar stimulates release of glucagon which breaks down glycogen and non-carbohydrates (amino acids) into glucose insulin - high blood sugar stimulates liver to form glycogen (sugar storage molecule)
Name the hormones produced by the thymus and their actions? thymosins - promotes the differentiation and maturation of white blood cells
Name the hormones produced by the kidneys and their actions? Aldosterone - promotes homeostasis of ions by causing kidneys to conserve sodium and excrete potassium
What diseases are associated with the thyroid? hyperthyroidism - thyroid hormone concentration high in blood hypothyroidism - thyroid hormone concentration is low in the blood
What are the conditions of stress? signals from sensory receptors stimulate the hypothalamus which increases sympathetic system activity (Adrenal medulla) to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenal cortex secretes cortisol.
What are endorphins? chemicals that act on the nervous system and reduce feelings of pain
How are hormone concentrations regulated? positive and negative feedback mechanisms along with nerve system control
Describe non-steroid action Non-steroid binds to target cell (receptor) on cell membrane which activates adenylate cyclase which converts ATP into cAMP. cAMP promotes cellular changes and is the 2nd messenger.
What are the hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and their actions? GH: sitmulates cell growth, division Prolactin: milk production. Thyroid-stimulang: controls secretions from thyroid gland Adrenocortiocortropic: controls secretions from adrenal gland. FSH & LH: egg development
What are the hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and their actions? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): causes kidney to conserve water Oxytocin: contracts muscles of the uterine wall
Created by: jlafferty
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