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Chapter 3 continued

Stack #150028

How many electrons in the outer energy level of a carbon molecule? 4
If a carbon atom needed to fill its outer energy level by sharing electrons with hydrogen, how many hydrogen would it need? 4
Using table 3.1, name two functional groups that are associated with amino acids. Explain what a functional group is. They are a group of atoms w/ special chemical features that are functionally important. Examples associated w/ amino acids are carboxyl & hydroxyl
What is an isomer ? Give two examples of a monossacharide isomer. 2 structures with identical molecular formulas but difference characteristics & structure (as well as purpose)
What is removed from 2 monosaccharides to make a disaccharide ? (Fig. 3.7) Name the type of chemical reaction that occurred. water; dehydration
How would you break up a disaccharide into two monosaccharides ? Add water; hydralysis
Plants store glucose as which type of polysaccharide molecule ? starch
Animals store glucose as which type of polysaccharide molecule? glycogen (animal starch)
Which type of chemical reaction would you use if you wanted to break down a polysaccharide into disaccharides ? (dehydration or hydrolysis) hydrolysis
What is a lipid ? give an example. It is composed of Hydrogen and carbon atom, it is non-polar- and made from a mixture of triglycerols (also called triglycerides). Examples are fats, phospholipids & steroids
What is the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid ? Saturated fats have single bonded carbon (solid at room temp) & unsaturated has double bonded carbon (liquid at room temp like vegetable oil)
What are saturated fatty acids saturated with ??? hydrogen
How many electrons do carbons share when they are connected with a double bond ? a single bond ? Double Bond- 2 electrons. Single Bond- 1 electron
How are phospholipids different from a fatty acid ? Fats are made of a mixture of triglycerides. A fatty acid is formed by bonding glycerol to three fatty acids which are a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms w/ a carboxyl group at the end (pg. 47 figure 3.9). Phospholipids are exactly the same exception fo
Explain how a phospholipids would react if it was placed in water. (draw an example) they are amphipathic so polar heads would be facing out into water & non-polar tail would be facing away from water (toward center) pg. 49
An alien space ship has crashed in a lake near your house. The aliens look very similar to us, they have legs, a waist, arms, neck and a head. The big difference is that their body is hydrophilic from the waist up and hydrophobic from the waist down. D Their heads would be in the water and their feet would be in the air.
Are most steroids water soluble ? why or why not ? few polar hydroxyl groups mat be attached to this ring structure, but they are not numerous enough to make a steroid highly water soluble. Thus they are not polar enough to dissolve
What is the monomer of a protein ? amino acids that make up a protein
Draw an amino acid and label the R group, amino group and carboxyl group
The primary structure of a protein depends on genes
The secondary structure of a protein depends on the repeating folding patterns that hydrogen bonds are responsible
What holds a beta pleated sheet and an alpha helix together ? (Hydrogen bonds)
Tertiary structures of proteins are caused by the interactions of ________. R- groups
What role does charge play in the reactions of R-groups in proteins ? they promote protein folding and stability
. Name the component molecules that make up nucleic acids DNA and RNA—made up of a phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose)& a single or double ring of carbon & nitrogen atoms as a base
What is a phosphate group ? group with four oxygens and a phosphate where phosphate is double bonded to one of the oxygens. (p. 58, figure 3.22)
What are the differences between DNA and RNA ? A stores the genetic info while it is RNA’s job to decode it. DNA is a double helix strand and RNA is a single strand. DNA has thymine and RNA contains uracil.
List the four classes of organic molecules and give a function of each. Carbohydrates- stored energy. Contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Sugar is an example of a small carbohydrate. ( the one exception to this rule is the cellulose which is found in plants and is used for structure instead of storing energy)2. Lipids- sto
Give an example of an amphipathic molecule discussed in this chapter. (chap 3) Phospholipids
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