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Midterm 2014

What are the 6 processes of erosions? gravity, water, wind, ice, chemical, biological
Describe erosion by GRAVITY? DOWN SLOPE MOVEMENT of materials – mass wasting; movement of materials from high to low elevation – landslide
Define Erosion? the weathering and or transport of solid materials (sediment, soil, rock and other particles)
Name 6 impacts of erosion? air quality, habitat destruction, water pollution, loss of nutrients, sediment loading, loss of life
What are the 6 processes of erosions? gravity, water, wind, ice, chemical, biological
Describe erosion by GRAVITY? DOWN SLOPE MOVEMENT of materials – mass wasting; movement of materials from high to low elevation – landslide
What are the two types of WIND erosion? Deflation and Abrasion (ecological succession)
Define Deflation? the movement of particles through wind circulation to another location (ex. Dune creation)
Define Abrasion? suspended particles in the air impact against other objects
What are the four factors involved with WATER erosion? 1. Rainfall Impact (SPLASH EROSION) – dislodges soil particles – if on downslope 2. Overland flow of soil particles in suspension (SHEET RUN) 3. Scour – concentrated flow in water courses (RILLS) 4. Slope failure – mass movement, slippage (MASS MOVEMENT)
Describe Ice erosion? movement of particles with glacial movement, or fracture of rocks through ice formation in pores and cracks
Describe CHEMICAL erosion? decomposed, dissolved or loosened by chemical processes to form residual materials
What are the different processes of CHEMICAL erosion? chemical weathering, carbonation, hydrolysis, oxidation and acid rain
Describe Biological erosion? movement/breakdown of particles by animals/insects/birds/plants
What can affect the RATE OF EROSION? climactic factors (temp.; precipitation), geologic factors (soil type, permeability, slope), biological factors (presence/absence of plants, types of organisms, land uses
What is the universal soil loss equation? A = R x K x LS x C x P; used to predict erosion due to water
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – A? erosion soil loss in TONS/ACRE/YEAR
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – R? rainfall factor
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – K? soil erodibility factor
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – LS? field length and slope factor
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – C? vegetative cover and management factor
Universal Soil Loss Equation A = R x K x LS x C x P – P? practises used for erosion control
What are 4 impacts of poor agricultural practices? sediment loading, increased nutrient input in watercourse (EUTROPHICATION), loss of productive land, decreased crop production (increased food cost)
What are the four tillage practices? Conventional tillage (less than 15% crop residue), Reduced tillage (leaves 15 – 30% crop residue), Conservation tillage (leaves more than 30% crop tillage). No – till (leaves almost all plant residue)
What are 3 erosion control strategies for agriculture? buffer strips; grassed waterways (natural or constructed) seeded with grass to protect from erosion runoff of adjacent cropland, conducts water away from fields; taking steep slopes out of production
What are the four types of irrigation? drip; sprinkler; furrow; flood irrigation
What is the most efficient method of irrigation? drip; frequent slow application of water to soil, most efficient method, LITTLE SOIL LOSS
Can sprinkler irrigation lead to soil loss? yes, the overhead application of water to crops can allow water to land with great force, it is best to use this method with established crops
What is furrow irrigation? irrigation from channels used between rows in crops , constant maintenance, large volumes of soil removed
What is flood irrigation? whole field surface is inundated with water, high rates of evaporation, large volumes of soil removed
What is the Dust bowl? period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to prairie lands (US and CAN) from 1930 – 1936
_____ million acres of farmland lost due to dust storms by 1934. 100
What was Black Sunday? April 15, 1935
What are Aeolian (or Eolian) processes? processes that pertain to the activity of the winds and specifically to the winds ability to shape the surface of the earth.
________ __________ soils have surfaces which are covered with coarse fragments. wind eroded
What are the three types of wind erosion? Suspension, Saltation, and Surface Creep
Describe the method of wind erosion known as Suspension? very small soil particles keep in suspension by the wind (particles less than 0.00mm, types – hummus, clay, silt)
Describe the method of wind erosion known as Saltation? moved by wind in succession of bounces (particles 0.05 mm to 0.5 mm, types – fine sand)
Describe the method of wind erosion known as Surface Creep? movement of very coarse sands, 1mm to 2 mm in diameter, roll along the surface of the ground
What are the four factors promoting erosion by wind? non cohesive soil; loose, small particles; land (vegetation) cover is sparse; higher wind speeds
What are the two factors minimizing erosion by wind? moist, dense soil; high vegetation cover
What is soil moisture? the quantity of water contained in a soil material; promotes cohesiveness of aggregates
What is soil shear strength? the amount of effort required to shear soul particles apart
What is the WEQ? E = C x K x I x LV TONS/ACRE/YEAR; C – climate factor, K – surface roughness factor, I – erodibility factor, LV – length of field, vegetation cover factor
What are the two factors of the WEQ that cannot be managed? climate factor C, erodibility factor I
What three factors can be managed? Length of field L, vegetation cover V, surface roughness K
Can careful management allow for changes of erodibility factor (increase in humus over long periods of time) to help combat wind erosion? yes
How does length of field factor combat wind erosion? decrease the field width and lengths with buffer strips (wind breaks); wind breaks decrease wind speeds, catch suspended solids and prevents creep.
True or False: Paths should pass through windbreaks at angles. true
How does the management strategy vegetation cover combat wind erosion? vegetation slows down wind speed, creates soil clouds around roots; value depends on amount of cover, coarse/fine, standing height, living or dead
How does the management strategy surface roughness combat wind erosion? rough surface prevent displacement of particles; breaks up wind path; can be altered with tillage practices (introduce ridges)
What is distance of ridges that effectively reduce erosion and trap soil? 5 – 10 cm
What are four impacts of wind erosion? poor air quality, decreases surface water quality, loss of arable land
Rainwater naturally picks up dissolved carbon dioxide from the environment; this becomes __________ solution. Acid rain is created by human added atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen. a weak carbonic acid solution
_________ is a chemical weathering process affecting silicate and carbonate minerals. It is a chemical process in which a _______ molecule is added to a substance resulting in the split of that substance into two parts. Hydrolysis, water EX. Hydrolysis of feldspar to form clay.
__________ leads to rust. oxidation.
Salt crystallization, otherwise known as ______ causes disintegration of rocks when saline solutions seep into cracks -> evaporation -> leaving salt crystals behind that will expand when heated and this causes pressure on the confining rock. Haloclasty
How do trees act as biological eroders? penetration of the roots into the small cracks of rocks, eventually can wedge the rock apart.
In 2006 80% of Canadians lived in an URBAN area. TREND: 2% increase every 10 years
Total deforestation from 1989 to 1999 was 43 430 ha; 41% drop in all forest types
What are some of the effects of urbanization and increasing impervious areas? decreased infiltration, increased water flows, rapid redirection of flow (storm drains), loss of vegetation and natural filtration systems, decreased groundwater recharge, increased pollutant levels in water courses.
The effects of urbanization combine to increase flooding, increased pollution, and __________________ which increases rate of erosion. increased water speed on our waterways
____ of the Sturgeon Lake Watershed is agriculture. 53%
_______ of streams flow into Lake Simcoe. 35 rivers, total 4000 km of streams
Target P loading into Lake Simcoe? 44 tons/yr (2007 – 71.5 – 77.3 ton/yr)
What is one source of phosphorous from urbanization? stormwater runoff carrying contaminants (ex. Dirt, oil, salt, fertilizers, pet waste and detergents)
What are two main sources of phosphorous in the Lake Simcoe? tributaries (urban and non urban – agric.) and atmospheric deposition (originated at local sources)
The health of coldwater fish community, especially ___________ is a good indicator of environmental quality and the overall health of the aquatic ecosystem. lake trout
Severe _________ of spawning shoals can smother and reduce survival of eggs ; __________ of rocky spawning substrates also makes deposited eggs more vulnerable to predators such as crayfish and mottled sculpins. sedimentation; infilling
True of False: Suspended sediments can clog gills of fish and inverts. and impact their ability to navigate predators and find food. True
What is the innovation called that can help to reduce P levels. phoslock
How do effectively manage erosion and sediment control (dealing with construction)? multi barrier approach
Erosion Control Measure – What is a vegetative filter (buffer) strip? use existing vegetation around sites to slow sheet water runoff, simple; 30 m buffer for cold water stream, 15 m for warm water stream
What are three applications of SEEDING which is low cost and establishing plant cover? mechanical, terraseeding (computer calibrated soil with seed), hydroseeding, sodding.
What are some examples of NATURAL COVER for erosion control? mulching, planting, rootwads, logs, straw
True or False: Scarificiation is a method of erosion control. true, surface roughening to combat surface creep
What are some of the requirements and benefits of using GEOTEXTILES? can be preseeded, must remove debris, must ensure good contact with the soil, staked and overlapped at edges
Sediment Control Measure? used to limit the amount of suspended soils from leaving a construction site, 3 sections: perimeter, settling and filtration controls.
Examples of Sediment Control Measures? siltsoxx, filtersoxx, control fences, vehicle tracking wash rack, temporary diversions, basins/traps, control ponds (long term)
What are some of the engineering tools used in Drainageway Protection? stream diversions, curb inlet protection, drop inlet protection, filter rings, inlet sox, drainage bags
What are the assumptions of the rational method for estimation of peak run off during a rain event? max rate of flow is produced by a constant rainfall; rainfall is uniform in space over drainage area; storm duration associated with the peak flow rate is equal to the rainfall intensity.
What is required for the rational method, Q = 0.0027 CiA Q = peak rate of runoff (m3/sec); C = coeff. Of proportion of rainfall to enter watercourse as runoff; I = avg. rainfall intensity (mm/hr) A = area of watershed basin (ha)
What is the general rule for stream flooding? a 3 hour rainfall total exceeding the 10 – year return period is likely to cause flooding.
What is the time of concentration (TC)? calculates the length of time for rain at the head of the watershed to arrive at the terminus as runoff.
What is required for the TC calculation, TC = 0.0196 (L)1.1555/H0.385? TC = minutes, L = max. travel length (m), H = change of elevation in travel length (m), volume = Q x TC (need TC in seconds)
What is bioengineering? the use of plants and plant products as engineering materials.
______________ are transitional areas between water and land, ecotones rich with elements of both. __________ is a key element that has numerous functions. Riparian zones, vegetation
Why are plants so important to erosion control - hydrologically? interception on foliage (reduce splash erosion), infiltration capacity increased due to higher ground surface roughness and permeability, transpiration of water-uptake by roots lowers pore – water pressure,cracking of soil due to transpiration
Why are plants so important to erosion control – mechanically? soil reinforcement by roots (increase shear strength), anchoring of topsoil into firm strata, increase normal and downhill forces,
Why are plants so important to erosion control – technical advantages? protection against surface erosion, increase in slope stability by root reinforcement and draining, protect against rock fall and wind
Why are plants so important to erosion control – ecological advantages? regulation of temperature and humidity close to the surface – promoting growth; improvement of the soil water regime via interception, evapotranspiration and storage; soil improvement and top soil formation; promote habitat formation
Examples of bioengineering techniques? live stakes, wattles/fascines, brush layering, palisades, shade creation, live ground sills (creates small steps on low grades), rootwads, live rock/boulder revetments, brush mattresses, and more
What is consideration to remember when working with live rock, boulder revetments? needs to be used sparingly; will provide immediate results but can lead to speeding up the water.
What are some of the limitations when implementing bioengineering techniques? time, labour intensive, planting times, slope needs to be able to support growth, can be slow to establish, maintenance and monitoring,
Created by: envirolife