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Med-Surg Test 3

Muscloskeletal system

Discuss the elements of data collection for the MS system history, physical exam, Dx tests, circulation, sensation, mobility, pain
Identify common Dx tests used in the evaluation of MS disorders (13) radiographic films, CT, MRI, arthrogram, arthroscopy, arthrocentesis, synovial fluid analysis, bone densitometry, bone scan, electromyography, biopsy, blood tests, urine tests
Discuss the NM of pts undergoing test for MS disorders compile allergy history - iodine & seafood are contraindicated for arthrograms and contrast medium tests. does protocols for examinations, identifies and sends collected specimens to lab and manages pts safe recovery
Discuss the nursing process r/t pt w MS injury check dressings, swelling/bleeding, application of cold, analgesic meds, VS, check neurovascular status, promote comfort, ROM
Sprains def injury to a ligament surrounding the joint
Strains def muscle is stretched beyond its capacity
Contusions def soft tissue injury from a blow or blunt trauma
dislocation def when articular spaces of a joint are no longer intact. hip and knee are most common
subluxations def partial dislocation
Describe various types and classifications of fractions Open (compound) fracture - skin and mucous membranes bones can protrude through the skin. Closed - remain contained and dont break skin
Discuss the complications associated w a fracture (7) Deformity, edema, ecchymosis, pain, muscle spasms, impaired sensation, crepitus (sound of bone moving over one another or air popping)
Identify specific fractures & their appropriate nursing & medical care (7) Tx depends on initial first aide given, location, severity of the break and age of pt (test!). Prevent further injury and reestablish function. traction, open/closed reduction, internal/external fixation, reduction & bone setting, cast. Need wire cutters
Discuss the complications for the pt with a hip fracture complications - pneumonia, DVT, infection, osteomyelitis, pulmonary embolism - big concern. shortening of extremity and external rotation. hypovolemic shock. discontinuity of bone and muscle spasms
Rheumatoid arthritis def systemic inflammatory disorder of CT & joints causing swelling. progress. most serious form for arthritis
Degenerative Joint Disease/Osteoarthritis def most common form of arthritis, called wear/tear disease that affects weight bearing joint, doesnt have remission or exacerbation. Bone surfaces rub together
Gout def painful metabolic disoder involving an inflammatory reaction in the joints. pt unable to metabolize purines(end products of protein digestion) found in organ meats & shellfish. Affected great toe, feet, hands, ankles, elbows, knees
Osteomyelitis def bacteria reach the bone thru the blood stream can be acute 4-6 wks or chronic, staph causes 70-80% of bone infections. Can result of open fractures or punctures wounds/decub ulcers. xrays r inconclusive in early stages, bone scans & MRI's are more useful
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome def caused by compression of median nerve in index and ring finger. tx - steroids, pain meds, surgery, wrist splints. NI pillows, strengthening exercise, heat and cold applications
Lupus erythematosus def CT disease - antibodies destroy CT. SLE major type - affects multiple body systems. More common in woman then men. May be autoimmune. Known as the great imitator because the clinical signs can resemble other conditions.
amputations def AKA,BKA. results from trauma or to control disease or disability. Complications include hematoma, hemorrhage, infection, chronic osteomyelitis, burning pain. Phantom limb pain can also occur - normal. rehab is suggested
Identify s/sx of bone tumors pain when weight bearing, bone deformed and swelling over extremity, movement decreased and fractures occur easily. Dx tests determine tumors. Grow slowly and do not metastasize
Heberdens nodes def bony enlargement of the distal interphalangal joints
hyperuricemia def accumulation of uric acid in the blood caused by problems in uric acid production, excretion or both. 2 types - primary and secondary
primary hyperuricemia severe dieting or starvation - excessive eating of shellfish, sardines, organ meats, heredity
secondary hyperuricemia abnormal purine metabolism, maybe d/t alcoholism or excessive use of asa/diuretics
uric acid def crystallizes in body tissues & deposits in soft & bony tissues causing inflammation & irritation.
epicondylitis def tennis elbow
ganglion cyst def mass that develops near tendon sheeth
osteoporosis def most common in vertebrae, hip and wrist. tx - calcium, wt bearing exercises, pain mgmt. discuss home safety measures because of falls risk
AKA def above knee amputation
BKA below knee amputation
3 types of casts cylinder (arm/leg), hip spica (surrounds one or both legs and trunk), body (encircles trunk from nipple to iliac crest)
Open/Closed Reduction Open - bone surgically exposed/realigned. Closed - bone restore to normal position by external manipulation (cast,bandage,split, traction)
Internal/External Fixation External - metal pins inserted into bone from outside skin surface. Internal - after reduction bone is secured w metal screws, plates, rods, nails, or pins
NI for hip fracture use abductor pillow for hip fracture, dont allow pt to flex hips beyond 90 degree, remind not to cross legs, pt may get UTI or constipation
kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis def kyphosis - convex curve of thoracic spine (humpback), lordosis - concave curve of lumbar spine (swayback), scoliosis - lateral surve of spine
Created by: breinard