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Geology Test 1


A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical methods is an _______ element
The subatomic particle that contributes mass and a single positive electrical charge is the _______ proton
Atoms of an element containing different numbers of neutrons but the same number of protons are called _______ isotopes
Atoms with either a positive or negative electrical charge are called _______ ions
The bonding between Cl and Na in halite is _______ ionic
_______ is not true of a single silicon-oxygen tetrahedron The formula is SiO4
_______ is not a type of silicate structure Pentagonal
_______ is not a silicate Calcite
On Mohs' hardness scale, ordinary window glass has a hardness of about _______ 5-6
The ability of a mineral to break along preferred directions is called _______ Cleavage
Striations are associated with _______ Plagioclase
Glass is ________ atoms randomly arranged
Crystalline substances are always _______ made of repeating patterns of atoms
Physical disintegration of rock into smaller pieces is called _______ mechanical weathering
The decomposition of rocks from exposure to water and atmospheric gases is called _______ chemical weathering
_______ is not a type of mechanical weathering Oxidation
The single most effective agent of chemical weathering at Earth's surface is _______ carbon dioxide CO2
The most common end product of the chemical weathering of quartz is _______ quartz does not usually weather chemically
Soil with approximately equal amounts of sand, silt and clay along with a generous amount of organic matter is called _______ loam
_______ can be distinguished from one another by appearance and chemical composition, have transitional rather than sharp boundaries, and are classified by letters ABCE&O Soil horizons*
The soil horizon containing only organic material is the _______ O Horizon
Hardpan forms in the _______ B Horizon
Particles of sediment from 1/16-2mm in diameter are of _______ size sand
The grinding away of sharp edges and corners of rock fragments during transportation is _______ Rounding*
Compaction and cementation are two common processes of _______ lithification
_______ is not a chemical or organic sedimentary rock shale
The major difference between breccia and conglomerate is _______ rounding of the grain
_______ is not a type of sandstone coal
Shale differs from mudstone in that _______ shale is visibly layered and fissile; mudstone is massive and blocky
The chemical element found in dolomite NOT found in limestone is __ Mg
In a graded bed, the particle size _______ decreases upward
A body or rock of considerable thickness with characteristics that distinguish it from adjacent rock units is called a _______ formation
If seal level drops or the land rises, _______ is likely to occur. a transgression
Thick accumulations of graywacke and volcanic sediments can indicate an ancient _______ convergent boundary
A sedimentary rock made of fragments of preexisting rocks is _______ clastic
Clues to the nature of the source area of sediment can be found in _______ sedimentary structures
Plate tectonics is a result of Earth's internal heat engine, powered by _______ heat flowing from Earth's interior outward
A typical rate of plate motion is _______ 1-10 centimeters per year
Volcanic island arcs are associated with _______ ocean-ocean convergence
The division of geology concerned with Earth materials, changes in the surface and interior of the Earth, and the dynamic forces that cause those changes is _______ physical geology
Earthquakes, volcanoes, mudflows, floods, wave erosion at coastlines, and landslides are _______ geologic hazards*
The largest zone of Earth's interior by volume is the _______ mantle
Oceanic and continental crust differ in _______ composition, density, and thickness
The forces generated inside Earth that cause deformation of rock as well as vertical and horizontal movement of portions of Earth's crust are called _______ tectonic forces
Plate tectonics is a _______ theory
The three plate boundaries are _______, _______, and ________. divergent, transform, and convergent*
The lithosphere is _______ the crust and uppermost mantle
Erosion is a result of Earth's external heat engine, powered by gravity?
_______ is NOT true of minerals most minerals are organic*
Rocks are _______ a collection of one or more minerals
True or False: Minerals are stable as long as they stay in the pressure and temperature environment where they originally formed True
Minerals with the same chemical make-up, but different arrangements of atoms are called _______ polymorphs
The chemical formula for the mineral jadeite (a source of jade) is Na(Al,Fe)Si2O6. The elements in parenthesis indicate that __________ Al and Fe can substitute for one another in the mineral
True or False: The "salt" in the ocean is really sodium ions and chlorine ions. True
When the electric charge on the water molecule is unevenly distributed, it means _______ we say that water is polar
When a rock like granite is exposed at Earth's surface, it expands and cracks because it is no longer in ________ equilibrium
The most common end product of the chemical weathering of feldspar is _______ clay minerals
True or False: Rocks expand when they are heated and contract when they are cooled. True
Created by: Ldflores89