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Respiratory System69

Unit I

Increase the surface area of the nasal mucosa, which warms and moistens the air as it enters the nose. Turbinates
The most distant bronchioles are called this? Respiratory Bronchioles
The area before the respiratory bronchioles serves only as a conducting pathway. Anatomic dead space (Vd)
Normal tidal volume (Vt), or volume of air exchanged with each breath. 500mL
Of each 500mL inhaled, about ___ is Vd? 150mL
A lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension in the alveoli. Surfactant
The space between the pleural layers, which normally contains about 20-25mL of fluid. Intrapleural Space
Pathologic condition that cause accumulation of greater amounts of pleural fluid (e.g blockage of lymphatic drainage or fluid imbalance such as heart failure patients.) Pleural Effusion
Purulent pleural fluid w/ bacterial infection. Empyema
The tendency of the lungs to relax after being stretched or expanded. Elastic Recoil
Is the measure of the ease of expansion of the lungs. Compliance (distensibility)
Represents the amount of oxygen dissolved in the plasma and is expressed in mmHg. Partial  Pressure of Oxygen (PaO2)
This is the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in comparison w/ the amount of oxygen the hemoglobin can carry. Arterial Oxygen Saturation (SaO2)
Oxygen is carried in the blood in two forms. Dissolved O2 and Hemoglobin Bound O2
Blood drawn from a ___ catheter is termed a mixed venous blood gas sample because it consists of venous blood that has returned to the heart from all tissue beds and "mixed" in the right ventricle. Pulmonary Artery (PA)
Changes in ___ provide an early warning of a change in cardiac output or tissue oxygen delivery. Venous Oxygen Saturation (SvO2)
Prevents over distension of the lungs. Hering-Breuer Reflex
In the mucus; contributes to protection against bacteria and viruses. Immunoglobulin  A (IgA)
Is described as a sharp, localized, stabbing pain, associated w/ movement or deep breathing. Pleuritic Pain
Pain along the boarders of the sternum and is associated with breathing. Costochondritis
Is the vibration of the chest wall produced by vocalization. Fremitus
Inspiration should take half as long as ______. Expiration
Is performed to assess the density or aeration of the lungs. Percussion
Relatively soft, low-pitched, gentle, rustling sounds. Vesicular sounds
Positive when the person says"E" but is heard as "A". Egophony
The mechanism that stimulates the release of surfactant. Alveolar Stretch from deep breathing.
During inspiration, air enters the thoracic cavity as a result of ______ intrathoracic pressure relative to pressure at the airway. Decrease
The three mechanisms by which the body regulates acid-base balance. Buffer, Respiratory & Renal
Is the fastest-acting system and the primary regulator of acid-base balance. Buffer System
A larger-bore ET tube reduces the ______ __ _______ because  there is less airway resistance. Work of Breathing (WOB)
Is contraindicated in patients w/ facial fx, suspected fx at the base of the skull, and postoperatively after cranial surgeries. Nasal Intubation
Obtain ABG's within ___ minutes after intubation to determine oxygenation and ventilation status. 25
Is the best indicator of alveolar hyperventilation or hypoventilation. PaCO2
The patient who is hypoventilating will be breathing shallowly or slowly and may appear ____. Dusky
A decrease in CO2 production is associated w/ these s/s. Hypothermia, Decreased CO, Metabolic Acidosis.
PETCO2 monitoring done at the patient ventilator circuit. Mainstream Sampling
PETCO2 monitoring done via a small-bore tubing to a bedside monitor. Sidestream Sampling
Occurs after 48 to 72 hours of PPV, especially PPV with PEEP. Fluid Retention
Reversed by administration of anticholinesterase agents. Used when nerve stimulator is not affecting patient. neostigmine
This makes the patient receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation more prone to poor O2 transport secondary to anemia and to poor tolerance of minimal exercise. Inadequate Nutrition
Enteral feeding via a _______ feeding tube is the preferred method to meet caloric needs of ventilated patients. Small-bore
Limiting _______ content in the diet may lower CO2 production. carbohydrate
The process of reducing ventilatory support and resuming spontaneous ventilation. Weaning
Short term ventilation. <3days
Long term ventilation. >3 days
Determines the patients ability to breathe spontaneously. Preweaning
Is recommended in patients who demonstrate weaning readiness. Spontaneous Breathing Trial (SBT)
The cuff is deflated during _______ because the exhaled gas helps propel secretios into the mouth. exhalation
A disadvantage of using a fenestrated tube. Tracheal Polyps
Receives fluid from and air from the pleural or mediastinal space. Collection Chamber
Contains 2cm of water which act as a one way valve. Water-Seal or 2nd compartment
Applies suction to the chest drainage system. Suction Control (3rd compartment)
Receives fluid from and air from the pleural or mediastinal space. Collection Chamber
Contains 2cm of water which act as a one way valve. Water-Seal or 2nd compartment
Applies suction to the chest drainage system. Suction Control (3rd compartment)
Flexible fiberoptic scope is used for dxg , biopsy, specimen collection, or assessment of changes. Also may be used for mucus plugs, lavage of lungs, or removing foreign bodies. NPO for 6-12hrs before test, and until gag reflex returns after procedure. Bronchoscopy
Used to obtain specimen of pleural fluid for dxg, to remove pleural fluid, or to instill medication. CxR always obtained after, Complication: Pneumothorax/hypoxia. Instruct pt not to talk or cough. Position using a table sitting w/ feet supported. Thoracentesis
Used to evaluate lung function. Involves use of spirometer to assess air movement as pt performs prescribed respiratory maneuvers. Instruct avoid after mealtime, avoid bronchodilators 6hr prior. Pulmonary Function Test (PFT's)
Sedation prolonged more than 5-7 days may cause ______. “tolerance”
Long-term sedation leads to complications of immobility and delayed ______. awakening
Antidote for Benzodiazepines? Flumazinil (Romazacon)
Needed for physical renewal and repair. NREM
Needed for psychological well being. REM
Created by: BOjangles1006