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RADT 308 Unit 2


Pattern of scarring and dense nodules Silicosis
Calcifications involving the pleura Asbestosis
Small opaque spots throughout lungs Anthracosis
Another name for Anthracosis Black Lung
Regions of calcification with cavitations, in the upper lobes and apices with upward retraction of hila Reactivation (Secondary) Tuberculosis
Small opaque spots throughout lungs, enlargement of hilar region in early stage Primary Tuberculosis
Commonly called hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in children Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
Granular pattern of increased radiodensity in lungs, possible air-fluid level RDS
Sudden blockage of artery in lungs Pulmonary Emboli
Rarely demostrated on chest radiograph, possible wedge-shaped opacity-Hampton's Hump Pulmonary Emboli
Fluid in the lungs Pulmonary Edema
Increased diffuse radiodensity in hilar regions, air-fluid levels Pulmonary Edema
Lung displaced from chest wall, no lung markings Pneumothorax
Patchy infiltrate with increased radiodensity, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, lobar, viral Pneumonia
Another name for Viral Pneumonia Interstitial Pneumonia
Another name for Lobar Pneumonia Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Possible air-fluid levels Pleurisy
Lung markings with "dry" pleurisy None
Pleural effusion, fluid is pus Empyema
Pleural effusion, fluid is blood Hemothorax
Side that is up with possible pneumothorax Affected side up
Side that is down with possible pleural effusion Affected side down
Radiodensities with sharp outlines, mass may be radiopaque Benign Lung Neoplasm
Another name for Pleural effusion Hydrothorax
Increased radiodensity, air-fluid level, possible mediastinal shift Pleural effusion
Slight shadows in early stages, larger defined radiopaque masses in advanced stages Malignant Lung Neoplasm
Benign Lung Neoplasm Hamartoma
Narrowing of the epiglottic region Epiglottitis
Increase or decrease exposure factors for Emphysema Decrease
Barrel chest, flattened diaphragm indicates Emphysema
Difficulty breathing Dyspnea
Increased radiodensities in specific lung regions, increase exposure factors with severe conditon Cystic fibrosis
What does COPD stand for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Hyperinflation, dominant lung markings in lower lungs, radiolucency Bronchitis
Radiodense lower lungs Bronchiectasis
Collapse of all or portion of lung, radiodense lung regions, shift of heart and trachea in severe cases Atelectasis
Mechanical Obstruction Aspiration
Exposure factor for Aspiration Soft tissue for upper airway
Caused by the inhalation of silica Silicosis
Caused by inhalation of asbestos, may develop into lung cancer Asbestosis
Caused by long-term inhalation of coal dust Anthracosis
Also called Black Lung Pneumoconiosis Anthracosis
AP lordotic projections used to visualize the calcifications and cavitations of the apices and upper lobes from this disease Reactivation (Secondary) Tuberculosis
Form of TB that occurs in a person who has never had the disease before Primary Tuberculosis
Contagious disease caused by airborne bacteria Tuberculosis
Emergency condition with leakage of fluid and blood between or into the alveoli Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
RDS in infants Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD)
RDS in adults Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Condition of excess fluid in the lung, common with CHF Pulmonary Edema
Accumulation of air in the pleural space Pneumothorax
Pneumonia causing inflammation of the alveoli and connecting lung tissues Viral Pneumonia
Usually within 1 or 2 lobes of the lungs Lobar Pneumonia
Commonly caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria, bronchitis of both lungs Bronchopneumonia
Edema as a result of foreign body in the lungs Aspiration Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs with an accumulation of fluid in certain sections Pneumonia
This conditon seen best in lateral decubitus position Hemothorax
May be casued by chest wound, obstruction of bronchi, or ruptured lun abscess Empyema
Condition of abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural cavity Pleural Effusion
Growth or tumor, either benign or malignanat Neoplasm
Most common pulmonary mass, perpheral regions of the lung Hamartoma
90% of this type of lung neoplasm start in the bronchi Malignant
Most common in children 2-5 years old, life-threatening condition can result quickly Epiglottitis
Disease with loss of alveolar elasticity Emphysema
Condition of shortness of breath, creates sensation of difficulty breathing Dyspnea
Most common of the inherited diseases, heavy mucus secretions that clog bronchi and bronchioles Cystic Fibrosis
Group of respiratory diseases that include: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma COPD
Acute or Chronic condition, excessive mucus secreted into the bronchi, main cause is smoking Bronchitis
Irreversible dilation or widening of the bronchi or bronchioles Bronchiectasis
Condition of the lung, result of obstruction of the bronchus, puncture, or "blowout" of an air passageway Atelectasis
Most common in small children when foreign object is swallowed Aspiration
How should a chest x-ray be taken how for a pneumothorax Erect or lateral decubitus if patient unable to stand
3 divisons of the sternum manubrium, body, and xiphoid tip
Number of pairs of ribs 12
Level of the vertebra prominens C-7
Used for landmark for AP Chest Jugular notch
Xiphoid tip is at the level of ______ T9-T10
4 divisions of the respiratory system Pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Dome shaped structure of the respiratory system, primary muscle of inspiration Diaphragm
As diaphragm moves downward, volume in the thoracic cavity _________ and ________ the intrathoracic pressure Increases, decreases
Common passageway for food, fluids, and air; common to the digestive and respiratory systems Pharynx
Makes up the roof of the oral cavity Hard palate and soft palate
The lower posterior aspect of the soft palate Uvula
Marks the boundary of the nasopharynx and the oropharynx Uvula
During swallowing the ______flips down to cover the laryngeal opening, prevents food and fluid from entering the larynx and bronchi Epiglottis
Called the Adam's apple Thyroid Cartilage
Connects the pharynx with the stomach Esophagus
The _______ is posterior to the trachea Esophagus
Cagelike,cartilaginous structure; also called the voice box Larynx
Small bone that suspends the larynx Hyoid
Ring of cartilage that forms the inferior and posterior wall of larynx, attached to the first ring of cartilage of the trachea Cricoid
Also known as the windpipe Trachea
Extends from level of C6 to T4/T5 Trachea
Organ located anterior in the neck region, stores certain hormones, radiosensitive Thyroid gland
Small, round glands embedded in the thyroid gland, help maintain blood calcium levels and other specific blood functions Parathyroid glands
This gland is located distal to the thyroid gland Thymus gland
The _____ primary bronchus is wider and shorter then the _______ Right, left
Which primary bronchus is a foreign object most likely to get lodged Right
The lowest tracheal caartilage Carnia
How many alveoli or small air sacs are contained in the lungs 500-700 million
The lobes of the right lung Superior, middle, and inferior
How many lobes in the right lung 3
How many lobes in the left lung 2
Light, spongy substance that makes up the lungs Parenchyma
Double-walled sac that contains the lungs Pleura
Pleural sac lining the inner surface of the chest wall and diaphragm Parietal pleura
Pleural sac lining the surface of the lungs and the fissures between the lobes Visceral pleura
Also known as visceral pleura Pulmonary pleura
Space between the visceral and parietal pleura pleural cavity
Rounded upper portion of the lungs, above the level of the clavicles Apex
Point of bifurcation of the trachea Carina
The outermost lower corner of the lungs, where diaphragm meets the ribs Costophrenic angle
Root region or central area of each lung Hilum
Thoracic cavity between the lungs Mediastinum
4 structures of the mediastinum thymus gland, heart and great vessels, trachea, and esophagus
This is considered a temporary organ, functions in childhood and puberty Thymus gland
This double-walled sac surrounds the heart and the roots of the great vessels Pericardial sac
This vein returns blood to the heart from the upper half of the body Superior Vena Cava
This vein returns bllod to the heart from the lower half of the body Inferior Vena Cava
Largest artery in the body Aorta
3 parts of the aorta Ascending aorta, arch of the aorta, and the descending aorta
Pecent of population with hypersthenic body habitus 5%
Percent of population with sthenic body habitus 50%
Percent of population with hyposthenic body habitus 35%
Percent of population with asthenic body habitus 10%
Breathing instructions for chest x-ray Hold breath on second inspiration
AP chest projection increases magnification of the __________ Heart shadow
SID for Chest x-ray 72 inches
Side against IR for Lateral Chest x-ray Left
If ribs not superimposed, what positioning error was made Excessive rotation
Level of the inferior angle of the scapula T7
How many inches below the jugular notch will the CR be positioned for an AP chest 3 inches
CR for chest T7
CR anglr for AP Chest projection 5 degrees caudad
CR angle for Semiaxial AP projection 15-20 degrees cephalad
Shield _______ for chest imaging gonads
Side of interest for anterior oblique position Farthest away from IR
Position to best visualize left lung RAO
Amount of rotation for RAO/ LAO 45 degrees
Posterior Oblique best visualizes side ________ to IR closest
This position shows the same anatomy as the RAO LPO
mAs for lateral upper airway 3 mAs
mAs for AP upper airway 10 mAs
Breathing instructions for upper airway slow, deep inspiration
Created by: lawebster