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Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
What are the three thyroid hormones? T3, T4, and calcitonin
How does calcitonin decrease serum calcium? Removes calcium from the blood and pushes it back into the bones
What dietary substance do you need to make hormones? iodine
People with hyperthyroidism have too much energy (Graves Disease)
Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism? (10) Nervous, weight decrease, sweaty/hot, exophthalmos, decrease attention span, increased appetite, irritable, increased GI, increased blood pressure, enlarged thyroid
For a hyperthyroid patient, is T4 increased or decreased? Increasead
After a thyroidectomy, how can you assess for accidental removal of parathyroid glands? Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (rigid muscles and spasms)
Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism? (7) No energy, fatigue, slow GI, weight gain, cold intolerance, slowed speech, no/flat expression
How long do clients with hypothyroidism have to take their meds? forever
What type of heart disease do people with hypothyroidism tend to have? Coronary artery heart disease
What does the parathyroids secrete and what does it do? Secretes PTH which pulls calcium from the bones and place it in the blood. Increases serum calcium level.
If you have too much PTH in your body the serum calcium level will be? increased
If you do not have enough PTH in your body, serum calcium level will be? decreased
Hyperparathyroidism equals? Hyperparthyroidism = hypercalcemia= hypophosphatemia
When serum calcium is high, serum phosphorus is? low
What should you monitor for after partial parathyroidectomy? rigid, tight muscles
Adrenal glands handle? stress
What are the two parts of the adrenal gland? Medulla and cortex
Where is epi and norepi excreted from? adrenal medulla
What does the adrenal cortex secrete? steroids (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones)
What are four things that glucocorticoids do? inhibits insulin, alters your mood, breaks down fat and protein, alters defense mechanism
What is the purpose of a vanillylmandeic acid test? 24 hour urine specimen looking for increased levels of norepi and epi.
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) make you retain what? And lose what? retain sodium and water and lose potassium
A disease process that causes adrenocortical insuffiency (not enough steroids)? Addisons disease
What are some signs and symptoms of Addison’s disease? Hyperkalemia, anorexia/nausea, decreased bowel sounds and GI upset, vitiligo, hypotension, decreased Na, Increased potassium and hypoglycemia
A disease process in which the client has too many steroids? Cushing’s disease
What is normal blood glucose levels? 70-110 mg/dL
What is usually the first sign of type 1 diabetes? DKA
How does insulin work? Carries glucose out of the vascular space and into the cells
What is the cause of type two diabetes? the client is not producing enough insulin to keep up with glucose production
How do oral hypoglycemics work? Stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin
When should you exercise? Same time everyday, after snack, when blood sugar is at its highest
What is a type of long acting insulin? Lantus
What is the only type of insulin you can give IV? Regular
How often is regular insulin given? Once a day
When is bolus insulin given? Throughout the day, before meals
What type of insulin can be given in infusion pumps? Rapid acting
Created by: karenmarie927