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Pharm Exam 1

CNS depressants and Stimulants

When a drug is partially metabolized before it enter the blood stream First pass effect
The dose range where the drug is giving the desired response and is not causing toxicity Therapeutic index
Most drug metabolism takes place here Liver
Most drug excretion takes place here Kidneys
The amount of time it takes for 50% of a drug to be excreted from the body Half-life
The number of half-life's it takes for a drug to be completely excreted from the body 5
The trimester during pregnancy that is potentially the most harmful to be taking drugs First trimester
The trimester during pregnancy when the fetus is getting the highest doses of the maternal drugs Third trimester
In these patients drug doses may need to be adjusted because their vital organs are still developing and may be more sensitive to certain drugs Pediatrics
In these patients drug doses may need to be adjusted due to organ impairments, polypharmacy effects, and higher risk for adverse effects Geriatrics
These patients have immature liver and kidneys which leads to slow metabolism and excretion, also lower gastric ph and higher body water content Pediatrics
These patients have slowed metabolism and excretion due to organ impairments, and lower-body water content Geriatrics
These patients have a weak blood-brain barrier and are more prone to adverse effects from drugs such as opioids, analgesics, NSAIDs, cholinergic, CNS depressants, sedatives, hypnotics, ect. Geriatrics
How many controlled substance classes are there 5
This controlled substance class includes drugs that are highly addictive and have no medical purpose C1
This controlled substance class includes drugs that are highly addictive and have some recognized medical uses C2
This controlled substance class has drugs that are moderately addictive, but have recognized medical uses C3
This controlled substance class includes drugs that are mildly addictive, and have well-known medical uses C4
This controlled substance class includes drugs that are very mildly addictive and have a wide-variety of medical uses C5
Control class for heroin, mescaline, marijuana C1
control class for oxycodone, morphine, codeine C2
Control class for hydrocodone C3
Control class for benzodiazepines C4
Control class for cough medications C5
The phase of the drug trial where small groups of healthy individuals are tested using various dosing amounts Phase 1
The phase of the drug trial where small groups of ill patients are tested and therapeutic indexes are refines Phase 2
The phase of a drug trial where large groups of ill patients are tested and drug effectiveness and safety are determined Phase 3
The optional phase of the drug trial where large groups of patients are taking the drug and more adverse effects can be reported Phase 4
If a person understands all possible benefits and risks of a drug trial and chooses to participate of their own free choice, they have Informed consent
This cultural group may have symptoms of psychosis managed at lower doses Hispanic
Legend drugs are also known as Prescription drugs
This drug group has no proof of efficiency and no standards for quality control Herbal supplements
This herbal supplement is known to help shrink the prostate to ease urination and has antiplatelet factors to "thin the blood" Saw Palmetto
This herbal supplement can be used to help prevent heart attacks Garlic
This herbal supplement has anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antimicrobial and digestion aids Goldenseal
This herbal supplement is used for memory disorders like AZ as well as for poor blood flow Ginkgo
This herbal supplement is used as an anti-depressant St. John's Wart
This herbal supplement is used as a sleep aid Valerian
Common adverse effects of this drug class include, constipation, nausea and vomiting, and sedation CNS depressants
This drug class will decrease HR, R, and pain CNS depressants
Dramatic decrease in respiratory status r/t CNS depressant use Respiratory depression
A progressive decline over hours-days in mood and respiratory status due to CNS depressants Subacute overdose
Morphine; class, control, considerations Opioids agonist, c2, itching
Codeine, class, control, considerations Opioids agonist, c2, Ceiling effect, antitussive
Fentanyl, class, control, considerations Opioids agonist, c2 Very potent, transdermal patch use
meperidine, class, control, considerations Opioids agonist, c2 Toxic in elderly
Oxycodone, class, control Opioids agonist, c2
Analgesic class that directly effects pain centers to decrease pain Opioids agonist
Analgesic class that uses competitive reception to block pain, and is usually a C4 drug control Opioids agonist-antagonists
This drug class competes with opioids for CNS receptor sites and works against analgesic drugs Opioids antagonist
Naloxone (Narcan), class, considerations Opioids antagonist Reverses opioid overdose and respiratory depression (Narcan)
Analgesic class including OTC analgesics and is not viewed as addictive or having side effects like respiratory depression Non-opioids analgesics
Acetaminophen, class, considerations non-opioid analgesic, toxic over 3 grams
Tramadol, class, considerations Non-opioid analgesic, Unique workings in CNS, associated with serotonin syndrome when taken with SSRIs
Transdermal reservoir system 4 layers, worn 3-4 days, older system, contains alcohol, more irritating to skin
Transdermal matrix system 2 layers, worn 7 days, new system, does not contain alcohol
Drugs that produce pain-killer effects without altering consciousness Analgesics
Drugs that control pain while producing decreased or loss of consciousness and muscle relaxation Anesthesia
Anesthesia that results in complete loss of consciousness, paralysis, and loss of respiratory function General Anesthesia
A post-anesthesia complication including fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, and muscle rigidity Malignant Hyperthermia
Daltrolene, use treatment of malignant hyperthermia
Balanced anesthesia contains Pain control, sedative/hypnotic effect, and paralysis effect
Anesthesia adverse effects Myocardial depression, respiratory depression, confusion, and toxicity
Ketamine Anesthetic sedative Used commonly for setting broken bones
Propofol Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, and moderate sedation
Moderate sedation Used more for out-patient surgeries, PT is able to maintain airway and consciousness, but is completely relaxed. Benzodiazepine w/ an opioid is common
Anesthesia that results in regional loss of sensation and maintains consciousness and respiratory function Local Anesthesia
Lidocaine, class, considerations Local anesthetic, may cause itching and allergic reaction
Neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD) paralyze the body but leaves the mind alert, used in adjunct with general anesthesis
Succinylcholine, class, uses, considerations depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug Used to facilitate endotracheal ventilation, used over short periods
Pancuronium, class, uses, considerations nondepolarizing NMBD Used for starting vents and skeletal relaxing Used over long period surgeries
A CNS depressant that reduces irritability and anxiety without causing sleep Sedative
A CNS depressant that causes sleep and relaxation Hypnotic
Three classes of sedative-hypnotics Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, misc. drugs
Sleep hangers occur in which class of drugs Sedative-hypnotics
Rebound insomnia Insomnia effect after a sedative hypnotic is discontinuated
Flumazenil, use Antidote for benzodiazepine overdose
Symptoms for benzodiazepine overdose Diminished reflexes, solemnness, confusion, and coma
Benzodiazepine uses Sedative, anxiety, depression, sleep, muscle relaxants, seizures
clonazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam Class of drugs Benzodiazepine
eszopiclone, zolpidem Class of drugs, generic names Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic Ambien and Lunesta
Barbiturates uses Insomnia, sedation, seizures
Why are barbiturates rarely used Narrow therapeutic index, unfavorable side effects, psychologically addictive. Benzodiazepines are safer
Pentobarbital, Phenobarbital class Barbiturates
Sleep considerations for Barbiturates Suppresses REM sleep, increased irritability After discontinuation, increased REM sleep, nightmares
Muscle Relaxant uses Skeletal muscle pain, muscle spasms, MS, Parkinsons
Dantrium, class, considerations Muscle relaxant Only muscle relaxant that is not centrally acting, works directly on the skeletal muscles
Baclofen, class, considerations Muscle relaxant Works with an implanted pump
Cyclobenzaprine, class, considerations Muscle relaxant Commonly used after muscle injury, causes marked sedation
Major classes of CNS stimulants Amphetamines, serotonin agonists, sympathomimetics, xanthines
Increased HR, increased R, increased BP, increased mental excitability are effects of which drug group CNS stimulants
Migraines, narcolepsy, ADHD, apnea, and obesity are all conditions that can be treated with CNS stimulants
These drugs increase alertness, decrease appetite, improve performance hindered by fatigue/boredom, and elevate mood CNS stimulants
Methylphenidate (Ritalin), class, uses, control CNS stimulant, ADHD and narcolepsy C2
Atomoxetine, class, use CNS stimulant, ADHD May cause suicidal thoughts in adolescents Not controlled substance
Modafinil (Provigal, class, use, control CNS stimulant, narcolepsy and shift-work disorder, C4
This drug class is used to treat obesity, is a CNS stimulant and suppresses appetite Anorexiant
Adverse effects of anorexiants headache, agitation, increased BP, increased HR, dizziness, and anxiety
Orlistat, class, use, considerations Weight loss supplement, binds to fat in the GI tract, causes oily stools and fecal incontinence
Serotonin receptor agonists (Triptans), uses, considerations CNS stimulant, Treatment of migraines Causes vasoconstriction
Sumatriptan, class, use, considerations Serotonin receptor agonists Migraines vasoconstriction
analeptics, use, considerations Treatment of respiratory depression and apnea in neonates, post-op, COPD, drug overdose, ect.
Caffeine, class, uses Analeptics, apnea in neonates, respiratory depression in adults
Antiepileptic drugs, class, uses CNS depressant, treat epileptic disorders
Anticonvulsant drugs, class, uses CNS depressant, treat consultant seizures associated with epileptic disorders Never stop abruptly
Three ways antiepileptic drugs work increase threshold in brain for stimulation, limit the spread of seizure discharge, and decrease the speed of nerve impulses
Dilantin, class, considerations antiepileptic Lethargy, cognitive changes, abnormal movements, and confusion
Carbamazepine, class, considerations Antiepileptic, associated with AUTOINDUCTION
autoinduction, define, drug association Stimulates the liver to produce enzymes that metabolize the drug faster and results in lower than expected drug concentrations, (occurs within 2 months of treatment) **Carbamazepine
oxcarbazepine, class antiepileptic
Neurontin (gabapentin), class, use Antiepileptic, Treat neuropathic pain
pregabalin, lamotrigine, topirimate, valproic acid (also used in bipolar disorder) Antiepileptic drugs
Adverse effects of antiepileptics Cold clammy hands, tremors, sweating, agitation
The purpose of anti-Parkinson drugs is to increase dopamine production, provide synthetic dopamine, treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Created by: jperrault9941