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Nutrition exam 1

nutrition exam 1

What influences our food selection? • Personal preference/ habits • Social, cultural, religious traditions • Availability, convenience, economic • Medical conditions • Nutritive value
6 classes of nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Organic vs inorganic • Carbohydrates: protein , and fat are energy yielding organic
kalories per gram o Cho- 4 Kcals/gm o Pro-4kcals/gm o Fat-9kcals/gm
What is an essential nutrient? • A nutrient that we cannot make
What is phytochemical? • Wide variety of chemicals made by plants
• Adequacy – providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts to maintain health
• Balance providing food in proportion to one another and in proportion to maintain the body’s need
• Calorie management of food energy intake
• Nutrient density- - a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides
• Moderation- providing enough, but not too much
• Variety- eating a wide selection of the foods among major food groups
what are the five major food groups established by the USDA food guide? • Vegetables, fruits, legumes, meat, milk
According to my plate, where should the majority of our food choices come from? plant base products
What is protein complementation • Protein complementation amino acids, essential protein, and non-essential protein
how can vegetarians use it to plan a balanced diet? • Protein complementation system allows for adequate complete or high quality protein in the diet
What food combinations can insure adequate quality protein? o Grains &legumes o Legumes & nuts, seeds o Milk products & grains
• Refined- - bran, germ, husk removed
• Enriched nutrients are added back in after processing
• Whole grain- intact not refined
• Fortified- nutrients added which may not have been present in original food
What is included on a food label • Included on the food label ingredient list , serving size, nutrition facts, %daily value
how are ingredients listed? • Ingredients are listed descending order by weight or amounts
what caloric value is the % daily value based upon? • Caloric daily value is based upon 2,000 calories
Anatomy of GI tract; where does most digestion/ absorption occur? • Anatomy of GI tract o Moth, esophagus .small intestine , large intestine , rectum o Small intestine is where most digestion occurs
• Bolus- mass of chewed food
• Chyme fluid of partly digested food
• Peristalsis – muscular contractions of GI tract that pushes food contents along
• Segmentation- squeezing action by intestines, backward and forward motion
Anatomy of absorptive system- why is this so efficient at absorption • Small intestine, villi, microvilli • So efficient because villi trap nutrients
• Simple diffusion cross intestinal cells freely ( water and small lipids)
• Facilitated diffusion- need specific carrier ( water soluble vitamins)
• Active transport- need carrier and requires energy (glucose and amino acids)
What circulatory systems are involved in nutrient absorption and transport? • Lymphatic system • Vascular system
Which products go into vascular system, lymphatic system? • Vascular system: blood heart pumps • Lymphatic system- clear yellowish fluid
Classification of CHO (which are simple, complex) • Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharide’s & disaccharides • Complex are oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
Condensation reaction, hydrolysis reaction ( what do they form or breakdown) • Hydrolysis reaction – split molecules occur during digestion broken down into monosaccharide’s • Condensation reaction—pairs of monosaccharide’s water forms
Storage forms of CHO in the body and in plants • Glycogen storage form of glucose in the body liver & muscle • Starch storage form in plants supports growth
Main areas of digestion of starch • Starts in mouth main area small intestine
Steps involved in blood glucose • Blood glucose rises with eating • Pancreas releases insulin • Glucose taken into cells, liver muscles make glycogen, excess glucose stored as fat • Blood glucose decline
maintenance, role of insulin/ glucagon • Insulin- moves glucose into cells it lowers levels • Glucagon- brings glucose out of storage and ships to blood it rises levels
What is DRI recommendation for % of total calories from CHO that should be consumed? • 45-65% OF kcals from CHO
Why are fibers indigestible • Fibers indigestible because enzymes cannot break it down
• Soluble fibers- form gells hemicellulose, pectin fruit, gums, mucilage’s, psyllium
• Insoluble fibers- cellulose, lignin
• Recommended intake for fiber 25 gms for 2000 kcal intake, 14gm per 1000 kcal intake, 20-35 gms a day
• Health benefits of fiber o Weight control o May reduce risk of colon cancer, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis o Maintains colon function o May lower cholesterol, reduce risk of heart disease o Control blood sugar
Created by: Julaine_13