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Fluid/Elec Imbalance

Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance 1215

QuestionAnswer
Sodium Normal Range 135-145 mEq/L
Potassium Normal Range 3.5-5 mEq/L
Chloride Normal Range 96-108 mEq/L
Calcium Normal Range 8.6-10.2 mEq/L
Magnesium Normal Range 1.8-2.7 mEq/L
Phosphorus Normal Range 2.4-4.4 mg/dL
FVD Severe Manifestations Heart rate increased acutely(135-140bpm), skin cold and clammy, eyes sunken, profound hypotension, flat neck veins, seizures, coma
FVE Severe Manifestations Edema, distended neck veins, abnormal lung sounds, increased blood pressure, mental confusion, nausea
FVD Causes/Risk Factors Excess fluid loss, decreased fluid intake, Diabetes Insipidus, hemorrhage, coma, medications
FVE Causes/Risk Factors Excess fluid intake, decreased fluid loss, heart failure, renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, excessive intake of electrolytes/dietary sodium
Hyponatremia Causes Water intoxication, heart failure, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, diuretics, fasting
Hyponatremia Manifestations Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, seizures, coma, orthostatic hypotension, neurologic changes,muscle twitching,weakness
Hypernatremia Causes Excess water loss, excess sodium, Diabetes Insipidus, heat stroke, medications
Hypernatremia Manifestations Twitching, tremors, seizures, coma, skin flushed, weakness, lethargy, confusion, thirst, fever, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, agitation
S.A.L.T. Hypernatremia S/S Skin flushed Agitation Low grade fever Thirst
Hypokalemia Causes GI losses, medication, poor diet, excessive sweating, dialysis
Hypokalemia Manifestations Muscle weakness, deep tendon reflexes decreased, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, GI disturbances, cardiac disturbances
S.U.C.T.I.O.N. Hypokalemia S/S Skeletal muscle weakness, U wave in ECG, Constipation, Toxic affects of Digoxin, Irregular weak pulse, Orthostatic hypotension, Numbness/parasthesia
Hyperkalemia Causes Treatment related, impaired renal function, tissue trauma, severe infection, salt substitutes, blood transfusion, medication, acidosis
Hyperkalemia Manifestations Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, peaked T wave, flat P wave, anxiety, DTR decreased, dysrhythmia, arrhythmia, muscle weakness, paresthesias
Hypocalcemia Causes Hypoparathyroidism, malabsorption, pancreatitis, blood transfusion, renal failure, medication, alkalosis
Hypocalcemia Manifestations Paesthesias, tetany, seizures, anxiety, respiratory-dyspnea, hyperactive DTRs, Trousseau's sign, Chovstek's sign, clotting
Hypercalcemia Causes Malignancy, hyperparathyroidism, boneloss, immobility, medication
Hypercalcemia Manifestations Fatigue, changes in LOC, coma, blood clots, stroke, muscle weakness, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bone pain, polyuria, thirst, ECG changes, dysrhythmias, tachycardia
Hypomagnesemia Causes Poor diet, poor absorption, GI loss, urinary loss, alchoholism, acute pancreatitis, medication
Hypomagnesemia Manifestations Altered LOC, mood changes, confusion, delusion, seizures, psychosis, coma, hyperactive DTRs, tremors, tetany, Trouseau's sign, Chovstek's sign, muscle weakness, tachycardia, dysrhythmia
Hypermagnesemia Causes Renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, treatment related, medications
Hypermagnesemia Manifestations LOC changes, flushed skin, lowered BP, nausea, vomiting, hypoactive reflexes, muscle weakness, depressed respirations, ECG changes, dysrythmia
Hypophosphatemia Causes Hyperglycemia, respiratory alkalosis, tube feedings, malabsorption syndrome, alcoholism, heat stroke, hyperventilation, hyperventilation, diabetic ketoacidosis, major burns, hyperparathyroidism, chronic diarrhea, laxative over use
Hyporphosphatemia Manifestations Fatigue, LOC changes, muscle weakness, decreased coordination, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bone pain, polyuria, thirst, ECG changes, dysrhythmia, tachycardia
Hyperphosphatemia Causes Renal failure, excess vit. D, acidosis, hypoparathyroidism, medication
Hyperphosphatemia Manifestations Soft tissue calcification, symptoms due to hypocalcemia
Hypochloremia Causes Addison's disease, reduced chloride intake, GI loss, diabetic ketoacidosis, excessive sweating, fever, burns, medication, metabolic alkalosis
Hypochloremia Manifestations Agitation, irritability, weakness, hyperexcitability of muscles, dysrhythmia, seizures, coma
Hyperchloremia Causes Traumatic injury, hypernatremia, dehydration, severe diarrhea, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, hyperparathyroidism, medication
Hyperchloremia Manifestations Tachypnea, lethargy, weakness, rapid deep respirations, hypertension, cognitive changes
Created by: aefelsher