Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

PRES 5400

ACP First 4 Weeks

QuestionAnswer
Define an ion. A charged particle.
Define an acid. Liberates hydrogen ions in solution.
Define a base/alkali. Accepts hydrogen ions in solution.
Normal blood values of pH. Arterial Blood. 7.35 - 7.45
Normal blood values of pH. Venous blood and interstitial fluid. ~7.35
Normal blood values of ph. ICF ~6 - 7.35
Homeostasis of hydrogen. Proteins are sensitive to pH. Diets high in protein tend to acidify blood.
What are the 3 mechanisms to regulate pH? Buffer system. Exhalation of CO2 (respiratory system). Kidney excretion of hydrogen (urinary system).
Describe the buffer system. Prevent rapid/drastic changes to pH (shock absorber)
Name the 3 buffer systems. Protein. Carbonic acid - bicarbonate. Phosphate
Describe the protein buffer system. Abundant in intracellular fluids and in plasma. Amino acids contains at least one carboxyl group and one amino group (acts like a acid and a base). Hemoglobin acts as a buffer in blood by picking up CO2 and hydrogen.
Describe the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system. Acts as extracellular and intracellular system. At pH of 7.4, the bicarbonate ion to carbonic acid concentration is 20:1. **This cannot protect against pH changes due to respiratory problems.
What is not scientific nomenclature of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system. CO2 + HO2 <--> H2CO3 <--> Hydrogen + HCO3-.
Describe the phosphate buffer system. Most important intracellular, but also buffers in the urine.
Describe renal control buffer system. Excretion of hydrogen in urine is the only way to eliminate huge excess. Kidneys make bicarbonate and save filtered bicarbonate.
What are the normal values of the acid base balance? pH 7.35 - 7.45. PCO2 35-45 mmHg. PO2 80-100 mmHg. HCO3 22-28 mEq/L.
What do acid base imbalances present as? Acidosis: depression of CNS - coma. Alkalosis: excitability of nervous tissue (spasms, convulsions, death).
What causes respiratory acidosis/alkalosis? Changes in the partial pressure of CO2. >45 mmHg = acidosis. <35 mmHg = alkalosis.
What causes metabolic acidosis/alkalosis? Changes in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-). <22 mEq/L = acidosis. > 28 mEq/L = alkalosis.
Describe respiratory acidosis. Elevation of CO2. Due to lack of removal of CO2 from blood. Treatment: Ventilate.
Describe respiratory alkalosis. Arterial CO2 is low. Renal compensation involves decrease of hydrogen excretion and increase reabsorption of bicarbonate. Treatment: breath into paper bag.
Describe metabolic acidosis. Blood bicarbonate is low. Loss by diarrhea or kidney dysfunction. Increase acid from diet/diabetes. Kidney fails to remove excess hydrogen from protein metabolism. Treatment: ventilate and correct the cause.
Describe metabolic alkalosis. Blood bicarbonate is high. Cause is a non-respiratory loss of acid (vomit, diuretics, dehydration, intake of alkali drugs). Hypoventilation. Treatment: fluid and electrolyte therapy, correct the cause.
Define milliequivalent. grams of solute in one mL of solution.
What are the two fluid compartments? Intracellular. Extracellular.
Describe Extracellular. 1/3 intravascular. 2/3 interstitial.
Describe the movement between fluid compartments. Intracellular to Interstitial: by diffusion. Intravascular to interstitial: by hydrostatic pressure.
Define osmosis. Movement of water from high to low concentration.
Define hydrostatic pressure. Pressure exerted by the movement or mass of water.
Describe isotonic. solutions are equal on opposite sides of membrane. Red blood cell is normal.
Describe hypertonic. Solute is greater on one side of membrane. Red blood cell shrinks.
Describe hypotonic. Solute is lesser on one side of membrane. Red blood cell bursts.
Describe dehydration. Loss of total body water. Isotonic: salt and water lost is equal (diarrhea, bleeding). Hyponatremic: loss of sodium (sweat, diuretics). Hypernatremic: increased sodium (high sodium diet).
Describe the regulatory mechanism for fluid. Thirst. Autonomic Nervous System: sympathetic response. Hormonal response: antidiuretic hormone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone.
Describe the antidiuretic hormone. Stimulated by high osmotic pressure in hypothalamic osmoreceptors.
Created by: Grizzlyman