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6 Sci Test 8 Ch 4B

orbit to revolve around
ellipse a symmetrically shaped oval
foci the two special points in an ellipse
astronomical unit the distance between the earth and the sun; equal to 93 million miles
gravity the force of attraction that exists between any two objects
planets the largest heavenly bodies that orbit the sun
solar system the sun and all the heavenly bodies that orbit it
solar year the time required for the earth to complete one revolution around the sun; equal to 365 1/4 days
atmosphere the blanket of air that makes the earth hospitable for living things
ozone layer a region of the atmosphere, located between 10 and 30 miles above the earth's surface, that filters out most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun
greenhouse effect the ability of the earth's atmosphere to retain heat around the earth
maria "seas"; large, dark-colored plains on the surface of the moon
lunar month the time it takes for the moon to complete a full cycle in its orbit around the earth
near-earth asteroids a group of asteroids located in the inner solar system, many of which cross paths with the earth
period the time it takes for a comet to complete an orbit around the sun
Kepler he discovered the planets do not travel in perfect circles, but in ellipses; formulated three laws of planetary motion
Copernicus he presented the idea that all the planets orbit the sun, and that the earth itself is also a planet
Newton he discovered the law of universal gravitation
Ptolemy he presented the idea of an earth-centered universe
My very excited mother just served us noodles planets in order; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
nucleus, coma, tail parts of a comet
revolution a single trip around the sun ( or other heavenly body)
rotation the spinning of the earth (or other object)
spring tide an especially high or low ocean tide that occurs during a new moon or a full moon, when the sun and moon are in line with the earth and their gravitational forces are working together
neap tide a weaker ocean tide that occurs during a first-quarter moon and a third-quarter moon, when the gravitational forces of the sun and moon work at right angles against each other
solar eclipse occurs when the earth's moon passes in front of the sun, blocking the sun's light
lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes through the earth's shadow, causing the moon to appear darkened
asteroid a small, rocky object that orbits the sun
comet an asteroid-sized object that develops a huge, bright tail when it domes near the sun
asteroid belt a region between Mars and Jupiter where most asteroids are located
Kuiper belt a region farther from the sun than the planet Neptune where a large number of objects resembling comet nuclei are located
meteoroid piece of space debris that is smaller than the smallest asteroids
meteor space particle traveling within the earth's atmosphere
meteorite a meteor that has landed on the earth's surface
first law of planetary motion every planet orbits the sun in an ellipse, with the sun as one of the foci of the ellipse and an empty point in space as the other
second law of planetary motion as a planet moves closer to the sun, it travels faster; and as it moves farther away, it slows down
third law of planetary motion shows the relationship between a planet's distance from the sun and the time it takes the planet to complete one orbit
new moon the beginning of the lunar month when the sunlit side of the moon is turned away from Earth and completely hidden from view
first-quarter moon the phase of the visible moon when it is half light and half dark
crescent phase the stage of the visible moon when it waxes from the new moon to the first-quarter moon and wanes from third-quarter to the new moon
full moon the phase of the moon when we see the entire sunlit side
gibbous phase the term for the visible moon when it seems to bulge as it waxes from first quarter to full and wanes from full to third quarter
third-quarter moon the stage of the visible moon when it is half dark and half light again
waxes to grow larger, as the moon seems to as it goes through it phases
wanes to shrink, as the moon seems to as it goes through it phases
Created by: Mrs_CC