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EMT Pharmacology

EMT NAIT Medication administration- Terms

The 6 "Rights" of medication administration Right Patient Right Medication Right Dose Right Time Right Route Right Documentation
Enteral Route Oral, Rectal, naso/orogastric
Percutaneous Route Topical (transdermal) Sublingual Buccal Ocular nasal Aural (ear)
Parenteral Route Intradermal Subcutaneous (SQ/SC) Intramuscular (IM) Intravenous (IV) Intraosseous (IO) Intramuscular (IM) Intravenous (IV) Intraosseous (IO)
Pulmonary Route Inhalation (MDI/Nebulizer) Endotracheal (paramedic scope)
Movement of drugs in the body as they are absorbed, distribution, metabolized and excreted Pharmacokinetics
Nature of absorbing surface, blood flow to site of administration, solubility of the drug, Ph, Drug concentration, dosage form, route of entry, bioavailability Factors affecting Absorption
Diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration Mechanisms involved in Absorption
The transport of an absorbed drug to target site Distribution
A series of chemical alterations drugs undergo within the body- in preparation for excretion Biotransformation
Elimination of the waste products of drug metabolism Excretion
The study of effects on the body Pharmacodynamics
Plasma Level Profile, Biological Half Life, Therapeutic Threshold, Therapeutic Index Drug response factors
The time it takes for plasma level of a drug to decrease to half the measured amount Half Life
Age body mass gender environment and time of administration existing pathology Factors altering Drug Responses
symptoms that mimic naturally occurring disease states Iatrogenic Response
Synergism Two drugs working together
Potentiation One drug multiplying or prolongs effects of another
Antagonist drug that prevents receptor stimulation by binding to a receptor site
Hypersensitivity AKA drug allergy
Idiosyncratic reaction abnormal or unexpected reaction peculiar to a certain patient
Tolerance individual capacity to endure certain medication- require larger dosage to achieve desired response
Drug allergy reaction occurring in a person who has been previously exposed to a drug and has developed antibodies
Delayed reaction (serum sickness) a type of hypersensitivity
Anaphylactic reaction Acute, systemic allergic reaction
Cross tolerance increased tolerance to drugs in the same class/family
Drug dependance physical or psychological need to use a drug or substance regularly
Tachyphylaxis A rapid development or tolerance
Cumulative effect successively stronger, larger or more effective- result from several doses administered or when absorption is faster than metabolism/excretion
Drug toxicity result of overdosage, ingestion of a drug not intended for internal use or buildup of a drug in system due to impaired metabolism or excretion
Drug Names chemical, trade, generic, "official" (official name is how it is listed in reference material)
Body system what system of the body does a drug affect
Class of agent What class is the drug
mechanism of action how does this drug work on the body
actions, pharmacokinetics, indications physiological action of the drug, reasons why drug is given
contraindications/interactions reasons why not to give a drug
Dosage amount/range of amount of drug to give based on indications/age/weight of patient
Route of administration how to deliver specific medications
Plant sources Alkaloids (ie:atropine, morphine) Glycosides (ie:Digitalis) Gums (ie:xanthan-used as a suspending agent) Oils (ie:eucalyptus)
Animal sources oxytocin, insulin, some vaccines, some birth control
Mineral sources Iodine, calcium, iron, sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride, magnesium sulphate
Synthetic sources Lidocaine, diazepam, demerol,
Microorganisms some antibiotics such as penicillin, streptomyocin
Teratogenic any agent that interferes with or alters the normal development of a fetus with results that are evident at birth
Polypharmacy unwanted duplication of drugs- common in elderly patients that have multiple medications
Therapeutic Index comparison of the amount of medication that causes the therapeutic effect with the amount that causes toxic effect
Created by: staggeringduck