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chapter 10

Earthquakes and volcanos

lava vent systems of tunnels that funnel lava outward along the sides of a volcano
Earthquakes the violent, rapid shaking of the earth caused by a rupture in its crust.
Seismic waves energy released by an earthquake that travels through the earth in the form of waves.
p-waves a seismic wave produced at the focus of an earthquake that is the fastest of all seismic waves and can travel through all states of matter.
s-waves a seismic wave generated at the focus of an earthquake that travels in the form of a wave and can only pass through solids.
surface waves a seismic wave formed from the interaction of other seismic waves at the earth's surface caused by an earthquake, which causes the ground to move in a wavelike rolling motion.
focus the point in the earth's crust where a rock mass is broken or moved causing an earthquake.
epicenter the point on earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
volcano marks a point on the earth's surface where hot molten rock, or lava flow from beneath earth's surface
lava hot, molten rock that flows freely on the earth's surface.
magma chambers tubes, tunnels or large cavities in the earth's crust through which magma travels or collects.
eruption the sudden release of lava or pyroclastic material from a volcano.
caldera large crater caused by a violent volcanic eruption.
pyroclastic flow rapidly moving flow of extremely hot gases, water, ash and debris that is ejected from a volcano during an eruption.
lahars a rapid flow of mud and debris formed from the rapid melting of snow and ice associated with a volcanic eruption.